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                                                                               FTAA.TNC/w/133/Rev.1

                                                                                       July 3, 2001

                                                                              Original: English-Spanish


FTAA - Free Trade Area of the Americas
 

Draft Agreement
 

Chapter on Intellectual Property Rights
 

· DRAFT CHAPTER ON INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS
 

[ PREAMBLE ]
 

[The Parties

Desiring to reduce distortions and impediments to trade within the Hemisphere;

Desiring to enhance the intellectual property systems in the Hemisphere to account for the latest technological developments;

Desiring to promote greater efficiency and transparency in the administration of intellectual property systems within the Hemisphere;

Desiring to build on the foundations established in existing international agreements in the field of intellectual property, including the World Trade Organization Agreement on Trade-related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS);

Hereby agree as follows: (1)]
 

I. GENERAL PROVISIONS AND BASIC PRINCIPLES.
 

Article XX [Nature and Scope of Obligations]
 

[Each Party shall provide in its territory to the nationals of the other Parties adequate and effective protection and enforcement of intellectual property rights, while ensuring that measures to enforce those rights do not themselves become barriers to legitimate trade.
 

Each Party may implement in its law more extensive protection of intellectual property rights than is required under this chapter, provided that such protection is not inconsistent with this chapter
 

Parties shall be free to determine the appropriate method of implementing the provisions of this chapter within their own legal system and practice]
 

Article XX Definitions
 

[For the purposes of this chapter, the following definitions shall apply:
 

-Berne Convention: the Berne Convention for the Protection of Literary and Artistic Works, Paris Act of July 24, 1971; 

-Brussels Convention, Convention Relating to the Distribution of Programme-Carrying Signals Transmitted by Satellite of 1974.

-Geneva Convention: the Convention for the Protection of Producers of Phonograms Against Unauthorized Duplication of their Phonograms, adopted in Geneva on October 29, 1971; 

-Paris Convention: the Paris Convention for the Protection of Industrial Property, Stockholm Act, of July 14, 1967; and 

-Rome Convention: the International Convention for the Protection of Performers, Producers of Phonograms and Broadcasting Organizations, adopted in Rome on October 26, 1961. 

-Intellectual property rights: all categories of intellectual property protected in this chapter, under the terms indicated.]
 

[National of a Party: in respect of the relevant intellectual property right shall be understood as those natural or legal persons that would meet the criteria for eligibility for protection provided for in the Paris Convention (1967), the Berne Convention (1971), [the Geneva Convention,] the Rome Convention, [the Brussels Convention] and the Treaty on Intellectual Property in Respect of Integrated Circuits]
 

Article XX. [International Agreements[Relation to other Intellectual Property Agreements [and Joint Recommendations] ]
 

[1. Parties may enter into intellectual property treaties or cooperation agreements, provided that they are not inconsistent with the provisions of this Agreement.]
 

[2. No provision of this chapter, relating to intellectual property rights, shall derogate from existing obligations that the Parties may have to each other under the Paris Convention, the Berne Convention, the Rome Convention, the Geneva Convention [and the Lisbon Agreement.] the Brussels Convention and the Treaty on Intellectual Property in Respect of Integrated Circuits]
 

3. [For the purpose of granting adequate and effective protection and enforcement of the intellectual property rights referred to in this chapter, Each Party to this Agreement shall give effect to, at a minimum, the principles and norms of this Chapter and, in addition to the substantive provisions of the following agreements:]
 

[(a) Berne Convention for the Protection of Literary and Artistic Works, 1971 (Berne Convention);]
 

[(b) Paris Convention for the Protection of Industrial Property, 1967 (Paris Convention)]
 

[(c) [Articles x to xx of the] Geneva Convention for the Protection of Producers of Phonograms Against Unauthorized Duplication of their Phonograms, 1971 (Geneva Convention);]
 

[(d) International Convention for the Protection of Performers, Producers of Phonograms and Broadcasting Organizations, 1961 (Rome Convention);]
 

[(e) Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights, the TRIPS Agreement (1994);] [, until such time as such Party has acceded to, and implemented the TRIPS Agreement.]
 

[(f) [Articles 1 to 22 of the] International Convention for the Protection of New Varieties of Plants - UPOV, [1991] [1978 or 1991, depending on which is in force in each country] ]
 

[(g) [Articles 1 to 7 of the] Convention Relating to the Distribution of Programme-Carrying Signals Transmitted by Satellite (1974);]
 

[(h) Articles x to xx of the Trademark Law Treaty (1994);]
 

[(i) [Articles 1 to 23 of the] WIPO Performances and Phonograms Treaty, 1966;]
 

[(j) [Articles 1 to 14 of the] WIPO Copyright Treaty, 1996.]
 

[(k) Articles x to xx of the Patent Law Treaty - placeholder;] (2)
 

[(l) Articles x to xx of Instrument for the Protection of Audio-Visual Performers' Rights - placeholder;]
 

[(m) Articles x to xx of Treaty for the Protection of Non-Copyrightable Elements of Databases - placeholder;]
 

[(n) the Joint Recommendation Concerning Provisions on the Protection of Well-Known Marks (1999) (3) and;]
 

[(o) Articles x to xx of WIPO Protocol on Trademark Licenses (4)]
 

[(p) Convention on Biological Diversity]
 

[4. Each Party shall make best efforts to ratify or accede to the International Agreements [and Joint Recommendations] referred to in paragraph 3 if they are not parties to them on or before the date of entry into force of this Agreement]
 

[4. Parties that have not ratified these agreements shall have one year from the entry into force of this Agreement to ratify or accede to the international agreements referred to.]
 

[5. Parties to this Agreement who have not already done so shall make best efforts to ratify or accede to the following international agreements concerning registration of intellectual property rights, within a period of one year within the entry into force of this Agreement,:

a) the Patent Cooperation Treaty (PCT) (1984);
 

b) the Protocol Relating to the Madrid Agreement Concerning the International Registration of Marks;
 

c) the Hague Agreement Concerning the International Deposit of Industrial Designs (1999);
 

d) the Budapest Treaty on the International Recognition of the Deposit of Microorganisms for the Purposes of Patent Procedure (1980);]
 

[6. For all purposes, including the settlement of disputes, nothing in this chapter shall be construed as additional or higher levels of protection than the minimum standards established in the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS), nor may it be interpreted as a reduction in the protection to levels inconsistent with the standards established in that Agreement.]
 

[(Placeholder Note: The NGIP will need to determine whether issues solely related to the obligations of the TRIPS Agreement, as incorporated in this Agreement, the international agreements and joint recommendations in paragraph 1, and provisions related to international agreements concerning the registration of intellectual property rights in paragraph 3 may be referred to the dispute settlement procedures of this Agreement.)]
 

Article XX. National Treatment
 

1. Each Party shall accord to the nationals of other Parties treatment no less favorable than it accords to its own nationals with regard to the protection (5) [and enjoyment] of intellectual property rights [and any benefits derived therefrom.]
 

[subject to the exceptions already provided in, respectively [the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (1994),] the Paris Convention (1967), the Berne Convention (1971), the Rome Convention (1961) [, the Geneva Convention,] and the Treaty on Intellectual Property in Respect of Integrated Circuits.]
 

[2. [A Party] [Each Party]

[may avail itself of the exceptions allowed under paragraph 1] [may derogate from paragraph 1] in relation to its judicial and administrative procedures for the protection [and enforcement] of intellectual property rights including the designation of an address for service or the appointment of an agent within the jurisdiction of a Party, only where such exceptions 
 

a) are necessary to secure compliance with laws and regulations which are not inconsistent with the provisions of this Agreement, and
 

b) where such practices are not applied in a manner which would constitute a disguised restriction on trade.]
 

[3. In respect of performers, producers of phonograms and broadcasting organizations, all rights under this chapter that exceed the protection under the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) shall be excepted from national treatment in regard to countries that are not Members of this Agreement and of the Rome Convention, for which the principle of reciprocity shall apply.]
 

[4. No Party may, as a condition of according national treatment under this chapter, require the nationals from other Parties, to comply with any formalities or conditions in order to acquire rights in respect of copyright and related rights.]
 

[5. They may also accord such treatment to nationals of a third country, under such conditions as may be provided for in the legislation of the Member.]
 

Article XX. Most-Favored-Nation Treatment
 

1. With regard to the protection [and enjoyment] of intellectual property, any advantage, favour, privilege or immunity granted by a Party to the nationals of any other country shall be accorded immediately and unconditionally to the nationals of all other Parties. 
 

[2. Exempted from this obligation are any advantage, favour, privilege or immunity accorded by a Party:

[deriving from international agreements and, in particular, trade and integration agreements within the Hemisphere:]
 

[(a) [deriving from international agreements] on judicial assistance or law enforcement of a general nature and not particularly confined to the protection of intellectual property;]
 

[(b) granted in accordance with the provisions of the Berne Convention (1971) or the Rome Convention authorizing that the treatment accorded be a function not of national treatment but of the treatment accorded in another country;]
 

[(c) in respect of the rights of performers, producers of phonograms and broadcasting organizations not provided under this Chapter.]
 

[(d) that include provisions on intellectual property and that entered into force prior to 01/01/1995, from the entry into force of the Agreement Establishing the WTO, and that have been notified to the Council for TRIPS.]
 

[(d) deriving from international agreements related to the protection of intellectual property which entered into force prior to the entry into force of the WTO Agreement, provided that such agreements are notified to the Council for TRIPS and do not constitute an arbitrary or unjustifiable discrimination against nationals of other Members.] ]
 

Article XX. [Multilateral Agreements on Acquisition and Maintenance of Protection]
 

[The obligations under Articles (XX and XX) on national treatment and most favored nation treatment do not apply to procedures provided in multilateral agreements concluded under the framework of WIPO relating to the acquisition or maintenance of intellectual property rights]
 

Article XX. [ [Promoting Innovation and] Technology Transfer] 
 

[1. [The Parties agree that the principle which underlies this Agreement and which should inform its implementation is that] The protection and enforcement of intellectual property rights should contribute to the promotion of technological innovation and the transfer and dissemination of technology, to the mutual advantage of producers and users [of technology,] [of technological knowledge] [in a manner conducive to social and economic welfare] [foster social and economic welfare] and achieve a [proper] balance of rights and obligations.]
 

[1. The Parties shall contribute to the promotion of technological innovation and the transfer and dissemination of technology, through government regulations favorable to industry and trade, that do not hinder free competition.]
 

[2. The needs of countries for financial resources and access to technology and knowledge, technology transfer and joint technological development under the relevant provisions of this Agreement should be considered, especially for technological training, in order to increase the competitiveness of the countries domestically and internationally.]
 

[3. Accepting the principle set out in paragraph 1, the Parties agree to take legislative, administrative or policy measures, as appropriate, to encourage and facilitate access to, joint development and transfer of, technology among private sectors of the Parties. Such measures should take account of the needs of Parties to this Agreement, having regard to their stage of development, and in particular, the special needs of those parties to this Agreement which have small economies.]
 

[4. Parties may implement in their legislation rules that prohibit contractual practices or conditions that restrict or limit the effective transfer of technology.]
 

[5. Each Party may suspend any and all obligations established in this chapter if the provisions of this article are not effectively implemented.]
 

Article XX. [Exercise of Rights/Abuse of Rights]
 

[1. Parties do not allow the abusive use or abusive non use of a right. In this regard, Each Party may apply appropriate measures provided that they are consistent with the provisions of this Agreement to prevent the abusive exercise of intellectual property rights by right holders or the use of practices which unreasonably limit trade or adversely affect the international transfer of technology.]
 

[2. Parties shall be free to determine the appropriate method of implementing the provisions of this Agreement, within the framework of their own judicial systems and practice. They shall also take into consideration, for the recognition and exercise of such rights, the social purposes of intellectual property, which may not be used to arbitrarily or unjustifiably discriminate against or restrict technological development or technology transfer, nor cause the abuse of dominant position on the market or the elimination of competition.]
 

Article XX. [Transparency]
 

[1. Each Party shall ensure that all laws, regulations, procedures and practices governing the protection or enforcement of intellectual property rights, and all final judicial decisions and administrative rulings of general applicability pertaining to the subject matter of this Agreement , shall be in writing and shall be published, in a national language in such a manner as to enable the public to become acquainted with them and so that the system for protecting and enforcing intellectual property rights shall become transparent. ]
 

[2. Procedures governing the filing, prosecuting, and cancellation/opposition/invalidation of applications for the protection of intellectual property shall be set out clearly in writing and made publicly available. Such procedures shall include names and contact information for specific entities involved in the filing, prosecuting, and cancellation/opposition/invalidation of applications for the protection of intellectual property.]
 
 
 

II INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS
 

1) TRADEMARKS
 

Article XX. Protectable Subject Matter
 

[1. Any sign or any combination of signs, capable of distinguishing goods or services of one undertaking from those of other undertakings, or goods or services of one person from those of others 

[where signs are sufficiently different or capable of identifying the goods or services to which they are applied, compared to those of its same kind or class]

shall be capable of constituting a trademark.]
 

[Such signs, in particular, words, including personal names, letters, numerals, figurative elements, and combinations of colors, as well as any combination of such signs, shall be eligible for registration as trademarks.]
 

[Where signs are not inherently capable of distinguishing the relevant goods or services, 

[each Party] [Parties] may make registrability depend on distinctiveness acquired through use.]
 

[Trademarks shall include [service marks,] [and] collective marks [and certification marks] ]
 

[1. Each Party shall understand "trademark" to mean any visible sign that serves to identify an enterprise in its commercial activity, and is capable of distinguishing the products or services of an enterprise from those of other enterprises.
 

Trademarks may consist, among other things, of trade names, personal names, pseudonyms, commercial slogans, figurative elements, portraits, letters, numerals, monograms, labels, shields, stamps, vignettes, ornamental borders, lines, bands, combinations and arrangements of colors, form, presentation or packaging of their products or of their containers or wrappings, or the media or outlets through which the corresponding products or services are sold.]
 

2. [Signs that are susceptible of graphic representation may be registered as trademarks.]
 

[ [The Parties] [Each Party] may require, as a condition of registration, that signs be visually perceptible [or susceptible of graphic representation] ]
 

[Parties may not require, that signs be visually perceptible to be elegible for registration]
 

[3. The nature of the goods or services to which a trademark is to be applied shall in no case form an obstacle to registration of the trademark.]
 

[4. [Each Party] [Parties] shall publish each trademark either before its registration or promptly after it is registered, [in accordance with their legislation,]
 

[and shall afford a reasonable opportunity for petitions to cancel the registration. In addition, each Party [may][shall], afford an opportunity for the registration of a trademark to be opposed.]
 

[and shall offer interested persons a reasonable opportunity to oppose its registration or to contest it.]
 

[5. Parties may make registrability depend on use. 
 

However, actual use of a trademark shall not be a condition for filing an application for registration. An application shall not be refused solely on the ground that intended use has not taken place before the expiry of a period of three years from the date of application.]
 

[6. The Parties may refuse to register trademarks that consist of or comprise immoral matter, reproduce national symbols, or are deceptive to the public.]
 

[6. Each Party may refuse, in accordance with its legislation, the registration of trademark that:
 

a) incorporate, inter alia, national symbols, or other national or international public entities;
 

b)signs, words or expressions that are contrary to morality or public order;
 

c) can lead to error as to their provenance, nature or quality; or
 

d) that are identical or similar to the extent of causing confusion or association when these trademarks are applied to the same products or services.]
 

Article XX. [Absolute and Relative Prohibitions]
 

[1. Parties may establish absolute and relative prohibitions on the registration of trademarks, provided that they are not inconsistent with regional or multilateral agreements on intellectual property.]
 

[In particular, signs that reproduce, imitate or include the denomination of a plant variety protected in one of the Members may not be registered as a trademark if said sign is used for products or services related to that variety or if usage thereof can cause confusion or association with the variety.
 

In addition, signs may not be registered if their use in the course of trade would unduly affect the rights of a third party, in particular when they consist of the name of indigenous, afro-American or local communities, or the denominations, words, letters, characters or signs used to distinguish their products, services or the way they were processed, or if they constitute an expression of their culture or practice, unless the request is presented by the community itself or with its express consent.]
 

[Generic Terms (6)]
 

Article XX. [Exhaustion of Rights]
 

[The registration of a trademark shall not entitle a right holder to prevent a third party from trading goods that is protected by said registration if the good in question have already been introduced in the stream of commerce on any country by the right holder or by any other person with the authorization of the holder or who is economically related to, provided that goods and containers and packages and have not been modified, altered, or deteriorated.
 

For purposes of this article, two persons are economically related where one person can have a decisive influence upon the other, either directly or indirectly, with respect to the use of the rights on the trademark, or where a third party may have such an influence upon both persons.]
 

[This Agreement shall not affect the authority of Parties to determine the conditions, if any, under which the exhaustion of rights related to products legitimately introduced in the market by, or with the authorization of the owner of the trademark shall apply. 
 

However, if a Party recognizes the principle of domestic exhaustion or the principle of non-exhaustion, the right holder, based on his registration or grant, may not prevent the circulation of patented goods or goods bearing a trademark, when legitimately introduced in the market under a compulsory license or any other safeguard.
 

Parties undertake to review their domestic legislation within a period not exceeding 5 years after the entry into force of this Agreement, in order to adopt, at a minimum, the principle of regional exhaustion in regard to all countries signatories to this Agreement.]
 

[Parties agree to apply the principle of regional exhaustion of rights, i.e., the holder of the intellectual property right may not prevent the free marketing of legitimate products, once lawfully introduced into the market in any FTAA Party, whether by the right holder himself or by a licensee or third party authorized by the right holder, provided that the products and the containers or packaging that have been in direct contact with such products have not been modified or altered. 
 

Parties shall have two years from the entry into force of this Agreement to incorporate this principle in their national legislation.]
 

Article XX. Rights Conferred
 

[The owner of a registered trademark shall have the exclusive right to prevent all persons not having the owner's consent from using in the course of trade identical or similar signs[, including geographical indications,] for goods or services [that are identical or similar] [that are related] 

to those goods or services in respect of which the owner's trademark is registered, where such use would result in a likelihood of confusion. ]
 

[In case of the use of an identical sign for [identical] [identical or similar] [related] goods or services, a likelihood of confusion shall be presumed. The rights described above shall not prejudice any existing prior rights, nor shall they affect the possibility of Parties making rights available on the basis of use.]
 

[The owner of a registered trademark shall be entitled to take action against third parties performing any of the following acts without the owner's consent:
 

a) Apply, attach or in any way affix a distinctive sign that is identical or similar to the registered mark, to products in respect of which the mark has been registered, or on the containers, wrapping, packaging or presentations of such products, or on those that have been produced, modified or treated using services in respect of which the trademark has been registered.
 

b) Suppress or alter the mark that its owner, or a person authorized thereby, may have applied, affixed or attached to the products defined in the previous subparagraph;
 

c) Manufacture labels, containers, wrappings, packaging or other analogous items which reproduce or contain a reproduction of the registered trademark; or market such items, or unlawfully hold such items in stock.
 

d) Refill or reuse for commercial purposes, containers, wrappings or packaging bearing the mark;
 

e) Make commercial use of a sign that is identical or similar to the registered mark for the same products or services in respect of which the mark has been registered; or for different products or services, when such use might cause confusion or suggest a connection with the owner of the trademark; and
 

f) Make commercial use of a sign that is identical or similar to the registered trademark in circumstances where such use might mislead the public or cause confusion, or might cause the owner of the trademark unfair economic or commercial injury, by diluting the distinctive force or commercial value of the mark, or by taking unfair advantage of its good name or distinctive force.]
 

Article XX. [Well-Known Marks] [Rights Conferred]
 

[1. Parties shall provide adequate protection to well-known marks.]
 

[2. [Each Party shall apply] Article 6 bis of the Paris Convention [shall apply,]

[, with such modifications as may be necessary,] [mutatis mutandis,] [to service marks] [to services.] ]
 

[A mark which, due to its promotion and marketing acquires a high level of familiarity in the sector involved and is identified with given products or services, shall be considered a well-known mark.]
 

[A trademark shall be considered well-known [in a Party] when a given sector of the public or of the business circle of the Party [in which the claim is being made] knows or recognizes the mark as a consequence of business [and/or promotional] activities carried out [in a Party or outside the latter] by a person who uses the mark in connection with his [products] [goods] or services [in the territory of the Party, as a result of the promotion or advertising thereof.] ]
 

[In order to demonstrate that the mark is well-known, all evidence [allowed by the Party in which such claim is being pursued] [including domestic evidence, without prejudice to the use of evidence originated abroad.] [allowed by the Party] [including evidence originated domestically or abroad] may be used]
 

[In determining whether a trademark is well-known, Parties shall take account of the knowledge of the trademark in the relevant sector of the public, including knowledge in the Party concerned which has been obtained as a result of the promotion of the trademark. [Parties shall not require that the reputation of the trademark extend beyond the sector of the public that normally deals with the relevant goods or services.] ]
 

[3. In determining whether a mark is well-known, relevant sectors shall include, among others: 
 

a) Actual or potential consumers of the type of goods or services to which the mark applies; 
 

b) Persons involved in marketing channels of the type of goods or services to which the mark applies; and 
 

c) Business circles dealing with the type of establishments, activity, goods or services to which the mark applies]
 

[4. Article 6bis of the Paris Convention (1967) shall apply, mutatis mutandis, to goods or services which are not similar to those [in respect of which a trademark is registered] [identified by a well-known trademark, whether registered or not,] provided that use of that trademark in relation to those goods or services would indicate a connection between those goods or services and the owner of the trademark and provided that the interests of the owner of the trademark are likely to be damaged by such use.]
 

[5. The Parties shall undertake ex-officio if their legislation so permits, or at the request of an interested Party, to refuse or to cancel the registration, and to prohibit the use of a trademark which constitutes a reproduction, an imitation, or a translation, liable to create confusion, of a mark [considered by the competent authority of the country of registration or use to be] well-known in that country and used for identical or similar goods or services. These provisions shall also apply when an essential part of the mark constitutes a reproduction of any such well-known mark or an imitation liable to create confusion therewith.]
 

[5. Parties shall undertake ex-officio if the country's legislation so permits, or at the request of an interested party, to refuse or cancel the registration of a trademark of goods or services which constitute a reproduction or imitation [or translation] of a mark considered by the competent authority of the country of country of registration to be a well-known mark in that country, property of a distinct owner and is used for identical or similar [or related] goods or services.]
 

[5. No Party shall register as a trademark those signs or figures which are identical or similar to those of a well-known mark, in order to apply these to any good or service in any case in which the use of the trademark by whomever may request registration, might create confusion or a risk of association with the person referred to in paragraph 1, or take an unfair advantage of the good will of the trademark. This prohibition shall not apply when the applicant for registration is the person referred to in paragraph 2.]
 

[5. No Party shall register as a trademark those signs or figures which are identical or similar to those of a well-known trademark, in order to apply these to any [product] [good] or service in any case in which [the use of the trademark by whomever may request registration, might create confusion or a risk of association with the person who uses said trademark in relation to its goods or services; may constitute an unfair advantage of the prestige of the trademark; or when it arises from the connection with same and could injure the interest of said person. This provision shall not apply when the applicant for registration of the trademark is the right holder of the well-known trademark in a Party.] [its use may suggest an association with the owner of the well-known mark or could affect his interests.] ]
 

[6. If any Party requires use for maintenance of the registration or renewal thereof, the promotion of the trademark within the territory shall be accepted as use of well known marks]
 

[6. The person who initiates an action to cancel the registration of a trademark in violation of paragraph 2, must show proof of having requested, in a Party, the registration of a well-known trademark, ownership of which said person claims.]
 

[7. No deadline shall be established for pursuing the cancellation or prohibition of use of marks registered or used in bad faith.]
 

Article XX. Exceptions
 

[ [Each Party] [The Parties] may provide limited exceptions to the rights conferred by a trademark, such as fair use of descriptive terms, provided that such exceptions take account of the legitimate interests of the trademark owner and of third parties.] 
 

Article XX. Term of Protection
 

[Initial registration and each renewal of registration, of a trademark shall be for a term of

[not less than] [7 seven years] [10 ten years]

[from the date of filing of the application or the date of its registration according to the legislation of each Party.]

[the date of its registration, according to the legislation of each Party.]
 

[, and may be renewed [indefinitely] for successive periods of ten years [as long as it complies with the conditions for renewal.] ]

[The registration of a trademark shall be renewable indefinitely.]
 

[Registration may also be renewed during a period of six (6) months following expiration of the registration or of the previous renewal. During such grace period, the registration shall remain fully valid.
 

On renewal of registration, no change may be made to the mark, nor expansion of the list of products or services in respect of which the mark was registered. The owner of the mark may, however, reduce or restrict that list.]
 

Article XX. Requirement of Use
 

[1. [Registration may be cancelled if, after five years of the date of registration, a trademark has not been effectively and genuinely used by the owner or by a third party with the express consent of the owner, within the territory of the Party that has granted the registration for specific goods or services; or if such use has been suspended for the same uninterrupted. This may be claimed through the exercise of the relevant action, unless there are valid reasons for non-use of the trademark.]
 

[If use is required by a Party to maintain registration of a trademark, the registration may be cancelled only after an uninterrupted period of at least three years of non-use, unless valid reasons, based on the existence of obstacles to such use, are shown by the trademark owner.]
 

[ [Use of a trademark is required by a Party to maintain registration of a trademark.] [A trademark shall be understood to be in use when goods or services identified by the trademark have been introduced in trade or are available on the market with said trademark, in the normal amount and mode, considering the nature of the goods or services and the modalities used to market such goods or services on the market [of the Parties.] ]
 

[Registration may be cancelled or declared expired due to lack of use only after an uninterrupted period of no more than five (5) years of non-use, immediately before the request for cancellation or the declaration of expiration, unless valid reasons based on the existence of obstacles to such use are shown by the trademark right holder.]
 

2. Circumstances arising independently of the will of the owner of the trademark which constitute an obstacle to the use of the trademark, such as import restrictions on or other governmental requirements for goods or services protected by the trademark, shall be recognized as valid reasons for non-use.
 

[3. In procedures for cancellation due to non-use, the burden of proof on actual use of the trademarks shall be on the responding party.]
 

4. When subject to the control of its owner, use of a trademark by another person shall be recognized as use of the trademark for the purpose of maintaining the registration.
 

[5. For the purpose of the preceding article, Parties shall consider the following to constitute use: 
 

a) Use of the trademark in a different manner, without thereby varying substantially from the manner in which it was originally registered. 
 

b) Use of the trademark to distinguish goods and services intended solely and exclusively for purposes of export. 
 

c) Likewise, use of the trademark for a good or service shall serve to certify use with respect to related goods or services, whether or not they belong to the same class of the international classification system under the Nice Agreement.]
 

[5. The following acts, among others, shall be understood as use of a sign for commercial purposes:
 

a) Place on the market, sell, offer for sale or distribute products or services under the sign;
 

b) Import, export, store or transport products with the sign;
 

c) Use the sign in publicity, publications, commercial documents or communications, whether written or oral, regardless of the means of communication used, without prejudice to applicable rules on comparative publicity; and
 

d) Adopt or use the sign as a domain name or electronic mail address, or as a name or identification in electronic media or other similar items used in electronic communications media or electronic commerce.]
 

[6. Each Party shall undertake ex-officio if its legislation so permits, or at the request of an interested Party, to cancel the registration of a trademark as provided in Article 1 of this section. Notwithstanding the above, cancellation due to non-use of the trademark shall be effective until after this has been declared.]
 

Article XX. [Exceptions to use
 

Registration of a trademark shall not confer on its owner:
 

a) The right to prohibit a third party from using their own name, pseudonym or domicile, a geographic name or any other true indication, for the purpose of identifying its products or its services, or giving information about them, provided that such use is made in good faith and is not liable to mislead the public as to the origin of those goods or services. 
 

b) The right to prohibit a third party from using the mark in relation to legitimately marked products, which the owner, or his or her licensee, or any other person having the owner's consent, may have sold or in any other way put on the market, domestically or abroad, provided that those products, and the containers or packages in immediate contact with such products, have not suffered any modification, alteration or deterioration.]
 
 
 

Article XX. Other Requirements
 

[The use of a trademark in the course of trade shall not be unjustifiably encumbered by special requirements, such as use with another trademark, use in a special form or use in a manner detrimental to its capability to distinguish the goods and services of one undertaking from those of other undertakings. [This will not preclude a requirement prescribing the use of the trademark identifying the undertaking producing the goods or services along with, but without linking it to, the trademark distinguishing the specific goods or services in question of that undertaking.] ]
 

Article XX. Licensing and Assignment
 

[ [Parties] [Each Party] may determine conditions on the licensing and assignment of trademarks, it being understood that the compulsory licensing of trademarks shall not be permitted and that the owner of a registered trademark shall have the right to assign the trademark with or without the transfer of the business to which the trademark belongs.]
 

[2. Licensing agreements shall be [in writing and] registered with the competent body of the Member and shall not include clauses that restrain trade. [If a license is not registered it shall not have effect against third parties.] ]

[2. The competent authorities of Parties may implement mechanisms for the recording of trademark licenses.]

[2. Parties shall not require recordal of trademark licenses to establish the validity of the license or to assert any rights in a trademark.]
 

[3. Licenses may be exclusive or non-exclusive use. If the license does not include an exclusivity clause, it shall be presumed that non-exclusive rights have been granted to the licensee.]
 

Article XX. [Procedural Issues]
 

[1. Parties shall ensure that procedures for the registration of trademarks for goods and services are sufficiently clear and transparent, respecting principles of due process.]
 

[2. Parties shall adopt the principle of priority (first to file) and priority in registration shall be determined on the date and hour of the presentation of the application.]
 

[3. Each Member shall establish a system for the registration of trademarks, which shall include at least: 
 

a) background search,
 

b) the publication of the application, 
 

c) a reasonable period of time for any person with a legitimate interest to oppose the registration of a trademark, 
 

d) the possibility to petition to cancel the registration of a trademark that violates existing regulations.]
 

[3. Each Party shall provide a system for the registration of trademarks, which shall include:
 

a) written notice to the applicant of the reasons for the refusal to register its trademark;
 

b) a reasonable opportunity for the applicant to respond to the notice;
 

c) in the case of a final refusal to register, written notice to the applicant of the reasons for the final refusal; and
 

d) for each decision rendered in an opposition or cancellation proceeding, a written explanation of the reasons for the decision.]
 

[4. Each Party shall work, to the maximum degree practical, to provide a system for the electronic application, processing, registration and maintenance of trademarks.]
 

[5. International Classification System 
 

a) Each registration or publication which concerns a trademark application or registration and which indicates goods or services shall indicate the goods or services by their names, grouped according to the classes of the Nice Classification.
 

b) Goods or services may not be considered as being similar to each other on the ground that, in any registration or publication, they appear in the same class of the Nice Classification. Conversely, goods or services may not be considered as being dissimilar from each other on the ground that, in any registration or publication, they appear in different classes of the Nice Classification.]
 

Article XX. [Domain names on the Internet 
 

1. Parties shall participate in the Government Advisory Committee (GAC) of the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN) to promote appropriate country code Top Level Domain (ccTLD) administration and delegation practices and appropriate contractual relationships for the administration of the ccTLDs in the Hemisphere. 
 

2. Parties shall have their domestic Network Information Centers (NICs) participate in the ICANN Uniform Dispute Resolution Procedure (UDRP) to address the problem of cyber-piracy of trademarks.]
 

Article XX. [Cancellation and transfer of domain name
 

In the event that a well known distinctive sign has been inappropriately registered in the country of the Party, as part of a domain name or electronic mail address of an unauthorized third party, on request by the owner or legitimate rightholder of that sign, the competent authority shall consider the matter and, where appropriate, shall order cancellation or amendment of the registration of such domain name or electronic mail address, in accordance with the respective national law, provided that use thereof would be liable to have one of the following effects:
 

1. Risk confusion or association with the owner or legitimate rightholder of the sign, or with his or her establishments, activities, products or services;
 

2. Cause unfair economic or commercial injury to the owner or lawful rightholder of the sign, arising from a dilution of its distinctive force or commercial or publicity value;
 

3. Make unfair use of the prestige of the sign, or of the good name of its owner or lawful rightholder.
 

The action of cancellation or amendment shall prescribe, for a period of five (5) years from the date on which the disputed domain name or electronic mail address was registered, or from the date on which electronic media, whichever period expires later, except where the registration was made in bad faith, in which case the action shall not be prescribed. This action shall not affect any other action that might be available with respect to injuries and damages under common law.]
 
 
 

2) GEOGRAPHICAL INDICATIONS - APPELATIONS OF ORIGIN
 

Article XX. [Protection of Geographical Indications and Appellations of Origin]
 

[1. Each Party shall protect appellations of origin and geographical indications under the terms of its legislation.
 

2. Each Party may declare protection for appellations of origin or, as appropriate, of geographical indications, pursuant to the provisions of its legislation, at the request of the competent authorities of the Party where the appellation of origin is protected. 
 

3. Appellations of origin or geographical indications protected in a Party shall not be considered common or generic for distinguishing the good, while its protection in the country of origin subsists. ]
 

Article XX. [Definition]
 

["Geographical indication" or "appellation of origin" shall be understood to be a geographical name of a particular country, region or locality, or a name that, without being that of a particular country, region or locality, refers to a specific geographical zone, which name is used to designate a product originating therein, the qualities, reputation or other characteristics are due exclusively or essentially to the geographical environment in which it is produced, including both natural and human factors.]
 

[For the purposes of this chapter, appellation of origin or geographic indication shall be understood to mean the name of a country, region or specific locality, that is used to identify a product originating from such places, whose characteristics, including natural and human factors, are due exclusively or essentially to the geographic locality in which they are produced; in addition, a name which, without being a country, region or specific locality, refers to a given geographic area, shall also be considered as an appellation of origin when used in relation to products originating from that area.]
 

[According to the provisions of this chapter, geographical indication or appellation of origin shall be understood to be a geographical name of a particular country, region or locality to designate a good as originating from the territory of a country or of a region or of a locality of that territory, the qualities or characteristics of which are due exclusively to the geographical environment in which it is produced, including both natural and human factors.
 

To the same end, geographic indication or appellation of origin of a country, region or locality used in the presentation of a good to indicate its place of origin, provenance, preparation, collection or extraction.]
 

[Any sign, or any combination of signs, capable of identifying a good or service as originating in the territory of a Party, or a region or locality in that territory, where a given quality, reputation or other characteristic of the good or service is essentially attributable to the geographical origin of the good or service, shall be capable of constituting a geographical indication.]
 

Article XX.[Protectable Subject Matter ]
 

[The use of appellations of origin in relation to natural, agricultural, handcraft or industrial products from the Parties shall be exclusively reserved for the producers, manufacturers and craftsmen who have their production or manufacturing facilities in the locality or region of the Member identified or referred to by such appellation.
 

Only producers, manufacturers and craftsmen authorized to use a registered appellation of origin are allowed to use with it the expression "Appellation of Origin."]
 

[Each of the Parties shall recognize geographical indications and appellations of origin of the other States for exclusive use in products originating in that location. ]
 

[Appellations of origin protected in one Party shall not be considered common or generic for distinguishing a good while it continues to be protected in the country of origin.]
 

Article XX. [Ownership
 

Parties may establish that the declaration of protection of an appellation of origin be made ex-officio or at the request of persons who can prove a legitimate interest, understood as a natural or juridical persons directly engaged in the extraction, production or manufacture of the goods to be covered by the appellation of origin as well as producer associations. State, departmental, provincial or municipal authorities shall also be considered interested parties when the appellations of origin in question are located within their jurisdiction.]
 

Article XX. [Rights Conferred]
 

[1. Applications for authorization of use of appellations of origin may be made by those directly engaged in the extraction, production or processing of products covered by appellation of origin, as well as by those carrying out such activity within the geographic area delimited by the declaration of protection. In both cases, applicants shall comply with the requirements established by the competent national offices.
 

2. Authorization to use a protected appellation of origin shall have a term of ten years that may be renewed for equal periods. 
 

3. Use of appellations of origin by unauthorized persons that creates confusion shall be considered an infringement of industrial property right subject to be sanctioned, including those cases in which they are used in conjunction with qualifying terms such as style, type, imitation and other similar terms that may create confusion for the consumer. 
 

4. Parties shall prohibit the use of an appellation of origin that identifies wines and spirits for goods of this type not originating in the place indicated by the appellation of origin in question, even where the true origin of the goods is indicated or used in translation or accompanied by expressions such as "kind," type," "style," "imitation" or the like. 
 

5. Parties may not prevent continued and similar use of an appellation of origin of another country identifying wines or spirits in connection with goods or services by any of its nationals who have used that appellation of origin in a continuous manner with regard to the same or related goods or services in the territory of the Party for (a) at least ten years preceding April 15, 1994, or (b) in good faith preceding that date.]
 

[Consequently, no Party shall permit the importation, manufacture or sale of a product that uses a geographical indication or appellation of origin protected in another Party, unless it has been manufactured and certified therein, pursuant to its laws, regulations and other norms applicable to that product. 
 

The obligation recognized above shall only have effect with respect to those geographical indications and appellations of origin protected by the domestic legislation of the Party that is claiming protection and whose definition is consistent with No. 1 of Article 22 of TRIPS. Further, to gain protection, each contracting Party shall notify the corresponding FTAA body (as determined by the Parties, pursuant to the results of negotiations in progress) of the geographical indications or appellations of origin which, fulfilling the requirements indicated herein, shall be considered within the scope of the protection. 
 

All of the above shall be understood without prejudice to the recognition that each Party may grant to homonymous geographical indications and appellations of origin that legitimately could belong to third countries that re not Parties to the Agreement.]
 

[1. In respect of appellations of origin and geographical indications, each Party shall provide the legal means for interested parties to prevent: 
 

a) the use of any means that, in the designation or presentation of a good that indicates or suggests that the good in question originates from a territory, region or locality other than the true place of origin, in a manner which misleads the public as to the geographic origin of the good; and 
 

b) any use which constitutes an act of unfair competition within the meaning of Article 10 bis of the Paris Convention.
 

2. Each Party shall ex-officio if its legislation so permits or at the request of an interested Party, refuse or invalidate the registration of a trademark which contains or consists of a geographical indication or appellation of origin with respect to goods not originating in the territory, region or locality indicated, if the use of the indication in the trademark for such goods in that Party is of a nature such as to mislead the public as to the true place of origin 
 

3. Paragraphs 1 and 2 shall be applicable against any appellation of origin or geographical indication that, although literally true as to the territory, region or locality in which the good originates, falsely represents to the public that the goods originate in another territory, region or locality.]
 

[1. The owner of a geographical indication shall have the exclusive right to prevent all persons not having the owner's consent from using in trade identical or similar signs, including trademarks, for goods or services that are related to those in respect of which the owner's geographical indication is registered, where such use would result in a likelihood of confusion. In case of the use of an identical sign for related goods or services, a likelihood of confusion shall be presumed. The rights described above shall not prejudice any existing prior rights, nor shall they affect the possibility of Parties making rights available on the basis of use.
 

2. Article 6bis of the Paris Convention shall apply, mutatis mutandis, to geographical indications. In determining whether a geographical indication is well-known, Parties shall take account of the knowledge of the geographical indication in the relevant sector of the public, including knowledge in the Party concerned which has been obtained as a result of the promotion of the geographical indication.
 

3. Parties shall not require that the reputation of the geographical indication extend beyond the sector of the public that normally deals with the relevant goods or services, or that the geographical indication be registered.]
 

[Article XX. Exceptions
 

An appellation of origin may not be registered if it is:
 

a) Contrary to good customs or public order, or could mislead the public concerning the origin, nature, mode of manufacture, characteristics or qualities, or the aptitude for use in consumption of the products concerned; and
 

b) The common or generic name of a certain product. ]
 

Article XX. [Relation to Trademark Protection 
 

Signs that reproduce, imitate or include a protected appellation of origin for the same goods or for different goods may not be registered as trademarks where such use would result in a likelihood of confusion or of association with the appellation, or taking an unfair advantage of their good will; as well as those including a protected appellation of origin for wines and spirits.]
 

Article XX. [Transparency
 

If Parties provide for notification and/or recordal as a legal means to protect geographical indications:
 

a) Parties shall accept applications for such notification and/or recordal of geographical indications without the requirement for intercession by a Party on behalf of its nationals;
 

b) Parties shall ensure that geographical indications are published for opposition, as well as cancellation, and shall provide processes to effect opposition and cancellation of geographical indications that are the subject of such notification and/or recordal systems.]
 
 
 

3) COPYRIGHT AND RELATED RIGHTS
 

Article XX. Definitions
 

[For the purposes of this [Agreement,] [Section,] the following will be understood to mean:]
 

-[Author: Natural person who produces the intellectual creation]
 

-[Performer: the person who performs, sings, reads, recites, interprets or in any way executes a work;]
 

-[Performers: all actors, singers, musicians, dancers, or other persons who act, sing, deliver, declaim, play in, interpret, or otherwise perform literary or artistic works or expressions of folklore; ]
 

-[Variety artist: a clown, contortionist, magician, trapeze artist or other person that performs in a show giving a public exhibition of their artistic ability;]
 

-[Competent National Authority: Body appointed for the purpose by the relevant national legislation;]
 

-[Copy: Physical medium in which the work is embodied as a result of an act of reproduction.]
 

-[Copy of a phonogram: a medium containing sounds taken directly or indirectly from a phonogram, which embodies all or part of the sounds fixed in that phonogram;]
 

-[Right holder: The person, whether natural person or legal entity, to whom rights accorded by this Agreement are transferred for any reason.]
 

-[Distribution to the public: The original or copies of the work made available to the public through sale, rental, lending or otherwise.]
 

-[Distribution to the public: any act by which the copies of a work are offered directly or indirectly to the general public or to a part thereof;]
 

-[Dissemination: To make a work available to the public by any means or procedure]
 

-[Publisher: the natural person or legal entity in whom is vested the exclusive right of reproduction of the work and the duty to disseminate it, within the limits stipulated in the publishing contract;]
 

-[Publisher: Natural or juridical person who, by contract with the author or his successor in title, is personally responsible for ensuring the publication and dissemination of the work.]
 

-[Broadcast: The transmission of sounds or images and sounds over a distance for public reception.]
 

-[Expressions of folklore: Productions using elements characteristic of the traditional cultural patrimony, consisting of all literary and artistic works created in the national territory by unknown or unidentified authors presumed to be nationals or members of their ethnic communities, and that are transmitted from generation to generation, reflecting the traditional artistic or literary perspective of a community.]
 

-[Fixation: The incorporation of signs, sounds or images, or a combination thereof, in a physical material that enables them to be perceived, reproduced or communicated]
 

-[Phonogram: Any exclusively aural fixation of sounds of a performance or of other sounds; phonographic and magnetic recordings shall be considered copies of phonograms;]
 

-[Phonogram: any fixation of sounds of a performance or of other sounds, or a representation of sounds that are not [in the form of] a fixation included in [a cinematographic or] an audiovisual work;]
 
 
 

-[Ephemeral Recording: Sound or audiovisual fixation of a performance or broadcast made for a finite period by a broadcasting organization by means of its own facilities and used for the transmission of its own broadcasts.]
 

-[Work: Any original intellectual creation of an artistic, scientific or literary nature, susceptible of disclosure or reproduction in any form.]
 

-[Anonymous work: one in which no mention is made of the identity of its author, either by decision of the author, or when the author's name is unknown;]
 

-[Audiovisual work: Any creation expressed by a series of linked images, with or without the incorporation of sound, which is intended essentially for showing by means of projection apparatus or any other means of communicating images and sounds, regardless of the characteristics of the physical medium in which said work is embodied.]
 

-[Audiovisual work: work consisting of a sequence of connected images, with or without sound, intended for exhibition by means of a suitable device for public communication of sound and images;]
 

-[Audiovisual work: a work resulting from the fixation of images, with or without sound, intended for creating, by means of reproduction thereof, the impression of movement independently of the processes used to capture it, the carrier used initially or subsequently to fix it, as well as the means used for conveying it;]
 

-[Collective work: a work created under the initiative, organization and responsibility of a natural person or legal entity, which is published under that person's or legal entity's name or mark and which is formed through the participation of various authors, whose contributions are fused into an independent creation;] 
 

-[Collective work: [That] [The work] created by several authors under the [initiative and] responsibility of a natural or legal person, which publishes the work [under] [with] his own name, and in which [it is not possible to identify the separate contributions of the corresponding authors;] [,due to the number of contributions by participating authors and the indirect nature of these contributions that are merged to create the work, it is impossible to identify the different contributions of the authors who participated in its creation.] ]
 

-[Work of applied art: two- or three-dimensional artistic creation with utilitarian functions or incorporated in a useful article, whether a work of handicraft or one produced on an industrial scale.]
 

-[Derived work: creation resulting from the adaptation, translation, arrangement or other transformation of an original work [, collections of works or collections of simple data, provided that such collections are original in terms of their selection, coordination or arrangement of content;] ]
 

-[Collaborative work: that created jointly by two or more natural persons, provided the work cannot be classified as a collective work;]
 

-[Unpublished work: that which has not been made public with the consent of the author, in any form;]
 

-[Original work: work that is an original creation]
 

-[Plastic works or fine arts: Artistic creation intended to appeal to the aesthetic sense of the person perceiving it, such as paintings, drawings, engravings and lithographs; this definition does not, for the purposes of this Agreement, include photographs, architectural works and audiovisual works.]
 

-[Posthumous work: work published subsequent to the death of the author;]
 

-[Work published for the first time in the Party: any work made available for the first time in the national territory of the Party. This includes work that was not initially published in the country, but is made available to the public in the Party for the first time, within thirty days following its publication abroad;]
 

-[Pseudonymous work: work that is published under a different name from that of the author;]
 

-[Broadcasting organization: Radio or television company that transmits programs to the public.]
 

-[Producer: Person, whether natural person or legal entity, who takes on the initiative and coordination of and responsibility for producing the work; for example, an audiovisual work or a computer program.]
 

-[Producer: the natural person or legal entity which takes the initiative to and has the responsibility for the first fixation of the phonogram or the audiovisual work, whatever the nature of the carrier used;]
 

-[Producer of a phonogram: The person, or the legal entity, who or which takes the initiative, coordination and has the responsibility for the first fixation of the sounds of a performance or other sounds.]
 

-[Producer of a phonogram: a person or legal entity that takes the initiative, has the responsibility for and coordinates the first fixation of the sounds of an interpretation, performance or other sounds, or representation thereof;]
 

-[Producer of audiovisual work: a natural or legal person that, on his or her own initiative, and under his or her own responsibility and coordination, for the first time fixes an audiovisual work;]
 

-[Computer programs (software): The expression in words, codes, plans or any other form of a set of instructions which, on being incorporated into an automated reading device, is capable of making a computer, an electronic or similar device capable of processing information to execute a specific task or produce a specific result. Software also includes technical documentation and users' manuals.]
 

-[Publication: Production and offering copies to the public, with the consent of the right holder, provided that copies are offered to the public in a reasonable quantity, bearing in mind the nature of the work.]
 

-[Publication: the act of lawfully making a work available to the public, with the author's consent, in sufficient amounts to satisfy reasonable needs given the nature of the work. Representation of dramatic, dramatico-musical, or cinematographic works, the performance of a musical work, public recital of a literary work, transmission or broadcast of literary or artistic works, exhibition of a work of art, or the construction of an architectural design do not constitute publication.]
 

-[Publication: the offering of a literary or artistic work to the public, with the consent of the author, or any other copyright holder, through any form or process, in a quantity of copies that reasonably satisfies the needs of the public;]
 

-[Public: any aggregation of individuals intended to be the object of, and capable of perceiving, communications or performances of works, regardless of whether they can do so at the same or different times or in the same or different places, provided that such an aggregation is larger than a family and its immediate circle of acquaintances or is not a group comprising a limited number of individuals having similarly close ties that has not been formed for the principal purpose of receiving such performances and communications of works.]
 

-[Public: includes for the purposes of copyright and related rights with respect to rights of communication and performance of works provided for under Articles 11, 11bis.(1) and 14(ii) of the Berne Convention, with respect to dramatic, dramatico-musical, musical, literary, artistic or cinematographic works, at least, any aggregation of individuals intended to be the object of, and capable of perceiving, communications or the performance of works, regardless of whether they can do so at the same or different times or in the same or different places, provided that such an aggregation is larger than a family and its immediate circle of acquaintances or is not a group comprising a limited number of individuals having similarly close ties that has not been formed for the principal purpose of receiving such performances and communications of works;]
 

-[Broadcasting: communication at a distance of sounds, or images and sounds, or representations or both, via electromagnetic waves propagated through space without artificial guidance, for the purpose of their reception by the public;]
 

-[Broadcasting: the wireless transmission, including via satellites, of sounds or images or images and sounds or representations thereof for public reception and the transmission of encrypted signals, where the means of decryption are offered to the public by the broadcasting entities or with their consent;]
 

-[Reproduction: the realization, by any medium, of one or more copies of a work, phonogram, or of a sound or audiovisual fixation, either total or partial, permanent or temporary, on any type of material base, including storage by electronic media.]
 

-[Fraudulent or unlawful reproduction: any reproduction not authorized by the owner of the copyright;]
 

-[Graphic Reproduction: The making of facsimile copies of the original or copies of a work by means other than printing, such as photography.]
 

-[Retransmission: Relaying of a signal or of a program received from another source, through the distribution of signs, sounds or images by wireless means, or by wire, cable, fiber optics or other comparable means.] 
 

-[Retransmission: the simultaneous [or subsequent] broadcast by a broadcasting entity of a broadcast from another broadcasting entity;]
 

-[Encrypted program-carrying satellite signal: means a program-carrying satellite signal that is transmitted in a form whereby the aural or visual characteristics, or both, are modified or altered for the purpose of preventing the unauthorized reception, by persons without the authorized equipment that is designed to eliminate the effects of such modification or alteration, of a program carried in that signal.]
 

-[Ownership: The holding of rights recognized under this Agreement.]
 

-[Transmission or broadcasting: the dissemination of sounds or of sounds and images by wireless means, satellite signals, wire, cable or other channel, optical media or any other wireless means;]
 

-[Cable transmission: transmission by wire, cable, fiber optic cable or any other analogous medium for the transmission of signals;]
 

-[Fair use: Use that does not interfere with the normal exploitation of the work or [unreasonably] prejudice the legitimate interests of the author.]
 

-[Personal use: Reproduction or other use of the work of another person in a single copy, exclusively for an individual's own purposes, in cases such as research and personal entertainment.]
 

-[Videogram: Audiovisual fixation incorporated in cassettes, disks or other physical support media.]
 

[For the purposes of this Agreement, the following definitions apply with respect to performers and producers of phonograms:]
 

-[Performers: actors, singers, musicians, dancers, and other persons who act, sing, deliver, declaim, play in, interpret, or otherwise perform literary or artistic works or expressions of folklore; ]
 

-[Fixation: means the embodiment of sounds, or of the representations thereof, from which they can be perceived, reproduced or communicated through a device;]
 

-[Phonogram: means the fixation of the sounds of a performance or of other sounds, or of a representation of sounds, other than in the form of a fixation incorporated in a cinematographic or other audiovisual work; (7)]
 

-[Producer of a phonogram: means the person, or the legal entity, who or which takes the initiative and has the responsibility for the first fixation of the sounds of a performance or other sounds, or the representations of sounds;]
 

-[Publication of a fixed performance or a phonogram: means the offering of copies of the fixed performance or the phonogram to the public, with the consent of the rightholder, and provided that copies are offered to the public in reasonable quantity;]
 

-[Broadcasting: means the transmission by wireless means for public reception of sounds or of images and sounds or of the representations thereof; such transmission by satellite is also 'broadcasting'; transmission of encrypted signals is 'broadcasting' where the means for decrypting are provided to the public by the broadcasting organization or with its consent.]
 

Article XX. [Copyright.] [Protectable Subject Matter]
 

[1. Copyright protection shall cover:

Literary or artistic works, regardless of genre, and of whatever mode or form of expression, quality or purpose. In particular, written works including computer programs, lectures, addresses, sermons and orally expressed works; musicals with or without lyrics, dramatic and dramatico-musical works, choreographies and pantomimes, audiovisual works, fine arts such as drawings, paintings, sculptures, etchings, lithographs, and architectural drawings; photographs; works of applied art; illustrations, maps, plans, sketches and three-dimensional works, relating to geography, topography, architecture or the sciences.

Copyright shall protect authors of literary, artistic and programming works. It also protects artist-interpreters or performers, producers of phonograms and broadcasting organizations.]
 

[1. Each Party shall protect [the economic and moral rights of the authors of] the works covered by Article 2 of the Berne Convention, including any works that embody an original expression, within the meaning given to that term in such Convention.] [, such as, computer programs (software), or the compilation of data which by reason of the selection or arrangement of their contents constitute intellectual creations.]
 

[1.The provisions of Articles 9(1) of the TRIPs Agreement shall apply mutatis mutandis

Copyright protection shall extend to expressions and not to ideas, procedures, methods of operation or mathematical concepts.]
 

[2. Article 10 (1) (of the TRIPS) shall apply, mutatis mutandis, in relation to computer programs.]
 

[2. The Parties agree that the protection conferred on computer programs is that provided in Section 1 of the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS).]
 

[2. Computer programs (software), whether in source or object code, shall be protected as literary works under the 

Berne Convention.]
 

[3. Compilations of data or other material, whether in machine readable or other form, which by reason of the selection or arrangement of their contents constitute intellectual creations, shall be protected as such. Such protection, which shall not extend to the data or material itself, shall be without prejudice to any copyright subsisting in that data or material itself.]
 

[3. The protection of compilations of data shall not extend to the data or material itself, or prejudice any copyright subsisting in that data or material.]
 

[4. Each Party shall grant protection to rights on:
 

a) titles or headlines of newspapers, magazines, newsreels and, in general, all publications or periodic dissemination;
 

b) fictitious or symbolic characters in literary works, comic strips or in any periodic publication, when same are recognizably original and are habitually or periodically used;
 

c) human characters used in artistic performances, artistic names, as well as stage names;
 

d) original graphic characteristics that are different from the work or collection in its use; and
 

e) characteristics of publicity campaigns when recognizably original, except commercial notices.
 

The term of protection of these rights shall be determined by the legislation of each Party.]
 

[5. The following are not subject to copyright: 
 

a) ideas, regulatory procedures, methods, systems, mathematical designs or concepts per se;
 

b) outlines, plans or rules for conducting mental processes, games or business, 
 

c) blank forms to be completed with any type of information, scientific or otherwise, and instructions thereon;
 

d) texts of treaties or conventions, laws, decrees, regulations, judicial decisions, and other official records; 
 

e) information for everyday use such as calendars, diaries, official land registers, or diaries, and keys;
 

f) individual names and title;
 

g) industrial or commercial exploitation of the ideas in the work]
 

[6. Each Party shall grant the authors and their [successors in interest] [successors in title] those rights enumerated in the Berne Convention in respect of works covered, including the right to authorize or prohibit:
 

[a) graphic edition;]
 

[b) the translation of any language or dialect;]
 

[c) the adaptation and inclusion in phonograms, videograms, cinematographic works and other audiovisual works;]
 

d) communication [of a work] to the public;
 

[e) the reproduction by any means or in any form;]
 

f) the first public distribution of the original and each copy of the work by sale, rental [loan] or otherwise;
 

g) the importation into the territory [of their country] [of a Party] of copies of the work made without the authorization of the right holder 
 

[h) any use, process or system known or to be known.] ]
 

Article XX. [Right of reproduction]
 

[1. Reproduction is understood to be the fixation of the work in a medium that permits it to be communicated or to copy all or part of the work, by any means or process.]
 

[1. The realization, by any medium, of one or more copies of a work, phonogram, or of a sound or audiovisual fixation, either total or partial, permanent or temporary, on any type of material base, including storage by electronic media.]
 

[1. Reproduction includes any act designed to accomplish, in any manner or through any procedure, the material fixation of the work, or to obtain copies of all or part thereof; among other means, by printing, drawing, sound recording, photography, modeling , or through procedures using graphic or visual arts, as well as by mechanical, electronic, phonographic or audiovisual recording methods.]
 

[2. The author, or his successors in title where applicable, shall have the exclusive right to carry out, authorize or prohibit the reproduction of the work by any means or process.]
 

[2. Authors of literary and artistic works shall enjoy the exclusive right of authorizing the reproduction of their works by any procedure and in any manner, including by digital means. 

Parties may determine that the right of exclusivity of reproduction shall not be applicable when that reproduction is temporary and merely for the purpose of making the work perceptible on electronic media or when it is transitory or incidental, provided not occurring during the course of use of the work duly authorized by the owner.]
 

[2. Each Party shall provide that authors, performers and producers of phonograms and their successors in interest have the right to authorize or prohibit all reproductions, in any manner or form, permanent or temporary (including temporary storage in electronic form).]
 

Article XX. [Right of distribution]
 

[1. Distribution to the public: any act by which the copies of a work are offered directly or indirectly to the general public or to a part thereof;

Distribution to the public through sale, rental, public loan or any other transfer of the ownership or possession of the original of the work, or copies thereof that have not been subject to distribution authorized by the author.

The rental of a copy of an audiovisual work, of a work contained in a soundtrack, or of a computer program, regardless of the ownership of the copy.]
 

[1. Right of distribution includes the right of authors to authorize or prohibit the making available to the public of the original or copies of their work through sale or other transfer of ownership, rental or any other transfer for profit. However, when the authorized transfer of the original or copies occurs through sale, this right is extinguished, except in the case of profit-sharing rights or droit de suite; however, the owner of the economic rights retains the right of modification, public communication, reproduction, and the right to authorize or prohibit the rental of the original or copies.]
 

[2. [Authors of literary and artistic works shall enjoy]

[Each Party shall provide to authors, to performers and to producers of phonograms and to their successors in interest]

[the exclusive right of authorizing the making available to the public of the original and copies of their works [and phonograms] through sale or other transfer of ownership [of the original or of a copy of the work with the authorization of the author.] .]
 

[3. Nothing in this Agreement shall affect the freedom of Parties to determine the conditions, if any, under which the exhaustion of the rights in paragraph 1 applies after the fist sale or other transfer of ownership of the original or copies of the works with the authorization of the author. [Parties shall undertake to reexamine their national legislation within a period not exceeding 5 years from the entry into force of this Agreement to adopt, at a minimum, the principle of regional exhaustion in regards to countries signatories to this Agreement.] ]
 

[4. Each Party shall provide to authors, to performers, to producers or phonograms and to their successors in interest the right to authorize or prohibit the importation into each Party's territory of copies of the work, performance, or phonogram, including where the imported copies were made with the authorization of the author, performer or producer of the phonogram or their successors in interest.]
 

Article XX. [Rental Rights] [Right of Rental]
 

[Authors of literary and artistic works shall enjoy the exclusive right of authorizing the commercial rental to the public of the originals or copies of their works.]
 

[In respect of, at least, computer programs [and cinematographic works]

Parties shall provide authors 

[and their successors in title] [and their successors in interest] [, successors in interest and other right holders,]

the right to authorize or prohibit the commercial rental to the public of original or copies of their copyright works.]
 

[A Party shall be excepted from this obligation in respect to cinematographic works, unless such rental has led to widespread copying of such works which is materially impairing the exclusive rights of reproduction conferred in that Party on authors, their [successors in title.] [successors in interest and other right holders.] ]
 

[In respect of computer programs, this obligation does not apply to rental where the program itself is not the essential object of the rental.]
 

[To sell or lease copies of an audiovisual work, or to make amplifications or reductions in its format for display purposes; and, to authorize translations and other adaptations or modifications of the work and use them, as necessary, for the better economic exploitation thereof, and take action before the competent jurisdictional bodies against any unauthorized reproduction or exhibition.]
 

Article XX. [Right of Participation
 

Authors of works of art and their successors have the unalienable right to participate in the successive sales made in relation to the work, either in public auction or through a professional art dealer. The Parties shall regulate this right.]
 

Article XX: [Right of communication to the public]
 

[1. The author, or his successors in title where applicable, shall have the exclusive right to carry out, authorize or prohibit the communication of the work to the public by any means serving to convey the words, signs, sounds or images thereof.
 

Communication to the public shall be understood to mean any act by which two or more persons, whether or not gathered together in the same place, may have access to the work without the prior distribution of copies to each one of them, and especially the following
 

a) stage presentations, recitals, dissertations and public performance of dramatic, dramatico-musical, literary and musical works, by any means or process;
 

b) the public projection or display of cinematographic or other audiovisual works;

the transmission of any work by broadcasting or by any other means of wireless dissemination of signs, sounds or images;
 

c) the concept of transmission shall likewise include the sending of signals from a ground station to a broadcasting or telecommunication satellite;
 

d) the transmission of works to the public by wire, cable, optic fiber or other comparable means, whether free or by subscription;
 

e) the retransmission, by any of the means specified in the foregoing subparagraphs, and by a broadcasting organization different from the original one, of the work broadcast by radio or television; 
 

f) the emission or transmission in or to a place accessible to the public and by means of any appropriate apparatus, of a work broadcast by radio or television;
 

g) the public display of works of art or reproductions thereof;
 

h) public access to computer data bases by telecommunication, by means of telecommunication, when said data bases incorporate or constitute protected works;
 

i) in general, the dissemination of signs, words, sounds or images by any known or future process.]
 

[1. Public representation or performance means any representation, diffusion, interpretation or performance carried out in theaters, cinemas, concert halls, dance halls, restaurants, social clubs, sport or recreation clubs, shops, commercial establishments, industries and banks, hotels, means of transport, stadiums, gymnasiums, amphitheaters, radio and television, and all those carried out outside the private domicile, whether or not for direct or indirect profit, and either with participation by artist-interpreters or performers or through phono-mechanical processes audiovisual or electronic.]
 

[2. Authors of literary and artistic works shall enjoy]

[2. Without prejudice to the provisions of Articles 11(1)(ii), 11bis(1)(i) and (ii), 14(1)(ii), and 14bis(1) of the Berne Convention, each Party shall provide to authors, to performers and to producers of phonograms and to their successors in interest]
 

[the exclusive right to authorize [any] [or prohibit the] communication to the public of their works [,performances or phonograms] by wire or wireless means, including the making available to the public of their works [, performances and phonograms] in such a way that members of the public may access them from a place and at a time individually chosen by them.]
 

[3. This right may be subject, in the case of performers and producers of phonograms, to national exceptions or limitations for traditional free over-the-air broadcasting and further, with respect to other non-interactive transmissions, may be subject to national limitations in certain special cases as may be set forth in national law or regulations, provided that such limitations do not conflict with a normal exploitation of performances or phonograms and do not unreasonably prejudice the interests of such rightholders.]
 

[4. The mere provision of physical facilities for enabling or making a communication does not in itself amount to communication to the public.]
 

[5. The different modalities of using literary or artistic works or phonograms are independent of each other, the authorization granted by the author or by the producer, respectively, shall not extend to any other uses.]
 

Article XX: [Moral rights]
 

[1. The author shall have the inalienable, unattachable, imprescriptible and unrenounceable right: 
 

a) to keep the work unpublished or to disclose it; 
 

b) to claim authorship of the work at any time; and
 

c) to object to any distortion, mutilation or other modification of the work that is prejudicial to the integrity thereof or to the reputation of the author.]
 

[1. Independently of the author's economic rights, and even after the transfer of said rights, the author shall retain over the work an extremely personal right, which is inalienable unrenounceable and unprescriptable. This is known as moral right.

The moral right of the author includes the following:
 

1. To claim authorship of the work, at any time and in any place, and in particular have his or her name or pseudonym mentioned as author thereof, in all its reproductions and uses;
 

2. To object to any distortion, mutilation or other modification of, or other derogatory action in relation to, the said work, which would be prejudicial to his or her honor or reputation, or cause the work to lose literary, academic, artistic scientific merit.
 

3. To keep the work unpublished or anonymous, and be able to postpone its publication even after his or her death;
 

4. To make successive changes to the work; and,
 

5. To withdraw from circulation or suspend any unauthorized form of the use of his or her work.]
 

[1. Independently of the author's economic rights, and even after the transfer of the said rights, the author shall have the right to claim authorship of the work and to object to any distortion, mutilation or other modification of, or other derogatory action in relation to, the said work, which would be prejudicial to his honor or reputation.]
 

[1. Moral rights shall be inalienable, unattachable, unrenounceable and imprescriptible. The author shall have the following moral rights: 
 

a) The power to determine whether the work will be totally or partially disseminated and, as appropriate, the manner in which such dissemination is carried out. 
 

b) The right to be recognized as such, to determine that the work carries the appropriate indications, and to determine whether it shall be disseminated with his name, with a pseudonym or sign, or anonymously. 
 

c) The right to prohibit any person who acquires the work's physical support medium from distorting, modifying or altering it in any manner that could jeopardize the decorum of the work or the reputation of the author. 
 

d) The right to require the owner of a single copy of the work to grant access thereto, in the manner most suitable to the interests of both parties, for the purpose of exercising his other moral or ownership rights. 
 

e) The right to stop the transfer or demand the withdrawal of the work from the market.]
 

[2. On the author's death, the exercise of moral rights shall pass to his successors in title. Once the economic rights have expired, the State or designated agencies shall assume the defense of the authorship and integrity of the work.]
 

[2. The rights granted to the author in accordance with the preceding paragraph 1 shall, after his death, be maintained, at least until the expiry of the economic rights, and shall be exercised by the persons or institutions authorized by the legislation of the Parties where protection is claimed.
 

Those Parties whose legislation, at the moment of their ratification of or accession to this Act, does not provide for the protection after the death of the author of all the rights set out in the preceding paragraph may provide that some of these rights may, after his death, cease to be maintained.]
 

[2. On the death of the author, the moral rights shall be exercised by his successors. Upon the exhaustion of such ownership rights, the paternity of the author shall be exercised by the State.]
 

[3. National legislation of the Parties may recognize other moral rights.]
 

[4. The procedural means of redress for safeguarding the rights granted by this Article shall be governed by the legislation of the country where protection is claimed.]
 

Article XX. Term of protection
 

[1. The term of protection granted by this Agreement shall be the life of the author and fifty years after his death.]
 

[1. The protection granted pursuant to this Article shall last for the life of the author. After his death, anyone who has legitimately acquired the rights shall enjoy them for a term of at least [75] [70] years.]
 

[1. The term of protection granted to the author of literary or artistic works by this Agreement shall be no less than fifty years, calculated from the first of January of the year after his death.]
 

[1. Copyright shall last for the life of the author and extends at least fifty years after his death]
 

[1. Economic rights shall last for the life of the author plus eighty (80) years following the death of the author, and shall be transmitted, as a result of death, pursuant to the provisions in force in each of the Parties. 

The work shall enter the public domain upon extinction of the economic rights. Works in the public domain may be used by any interested party, provided that the paternity of the author and the integrity of the work are respected.]
 

[1. Each Party shall provide that:
 

(-) where the term of protection of a work (including a photographic work), performance or phonogram is to be calculated on the basis of the life of a natural person, the term shall be not less than the life of the author and 70 years after the author's death; ()]
 

[2. The term of protection referred to in paragraph 1 of this article applies to posthumous works.]
 

[3. When a literary or artistic work is realized by joint-authorship that is indivisible, the term set forth in paragraph 1 of this article shall be calculated from the death of the last surviving author.]
 

[3. In collaborative works, this period of time shall be calculated from the date of death of the last co-author.]
 

[4. The Parties may provide, in accordance with the Berne Convention for the Protection of Literary and Artistic Works, that the term of protection for certain works shall be computed from the date of the making, disclosure or publication thereof.]
 

[5. Where the ownership of the rights accrues to a legal entity, the term of protection shall be no less than 50 years from the making, disclosure or publication of the work, as the case may be.]
 

[6. The term of protection shall be computed from January 1 of the year after the death of the author or that of the making, disclosure or publication of the work, as appropriate.]
 

[7. Anonymous and pseudonymous works: either seventy-five (75) years from the date on which the work was lawfully published for the first time; or, if this has not happened within seventy-five (75) years from the end of the calendar year in which the work became available to the public, or if neither such event has occurred during the seventy-five (75) years following production of the work, then seventy-five (75) years from the end of the calendar year of its production. If, before said period expires, the author's identity is revealed or is no longer in doubt, the provisions corresponding to the known author shall apply.]
 

[7. The term of protection in the case of anonymous or pseudonymous works shall be no less than 50 years, calculated from the first of January of the calendar year immediately following the year of initial publication.]
 

[8. Joint audiovisual works: by virtue of the work relationship involved, the seventy-five (75) year protection term shall be counted from the date on which the work was published for the first time; or, if this has not happened within seventy-five (75) years from the end of the calendar year in which the work became available to the public, or if neither such event has occurred during the seventy-five (75) years following production of the work, then seventy-five (75) years from the end of the calendar year of its production.]
 

[8. In collective works and those owned by a juridical person, the economic right shall not be less than 50 years from its initial publication or, failing this, from its making or dissemination.]
 

[9. Whenever the term of protection of a work [, other than a photographic work or a work of applied

art] ,is calculated on a basis other than the life of a natural person, such term shall be no less than [50 years] [70 years] [75 years] from the end of the calendar year of the authorized publication [or dissemination of the work] or,]
 

[failing such authorized publication within 50 years from the making of the work, 50 years from the end of the calendar year of making.]
 

[ failing such authorized publication, [75 years][70 years] from the end of the year of the making of the work.]
 

[9. Each Party shall provide that:

(-) where the term of protection of a work (including a photographic work), performance or phonogram is to be calculated on a basis other than the life of a natural person, the term shall be not less than 95 years from the end of the calendar year of the first authorized publication of the work, performance or phonogram or, failing such authorized publication within 25 years from the creation of the work, performance or phonogram, not less than 120 years from the end of the calendar year of the creation of the work, performance or phonogram.]
 

[10. Works of applied art: counted from the end of the calendar year of their production; ]
 

[11. Photographic works: fifty (50) years from the end of the calendar year of their production.]
 

[12. The duration of the intellectual property rights of performers, producers of phonograms and broadcasting organizations, shall be seventy-five (75) years, from:
 

1. The end of the year of fixation, in the case of phonograms and performances recorded thereon;
 

2. The end of the year of the performance in the case of performances that are not recorded on phonogram; and,
 

3. The end of the year of the broadcast in the case of broadcasting organizations.]
 

[12. The term of protection available to performers and producers of phonograms shall last at least until the end of a period of 50 years, from the end of the calendar year in which the fixation was made or the performance took place.

The term of protection granted to broadcasting organizations shall last for at least 25 years, from the end of the calendar year in which the broadcast took place.]
 

Article XX. [Limitations and exceptions]
 

[1. The Parties may establish limitations and exceptions to Copyrights, which shall be confined to those cases that do not conflict with a normal exploitation of the work and do not unreasonably prejudice the legitimate interests of the right holder.]
 

[1. Parties may provide, in their domestic legislation, exceptions and limitations to rights conferred on authors of literary or artistic works provided for in this Title in certain special cases that do not conflict with the normal exploitation of the work and do not unreasonably prejudice the legitimate interests of the author.]
 

[1. [Parties] [Each Party] shall confine limitations or exceptions [to exclusive rights] [to copyright or related rights] [to rights set forth in this article]

to certain special cases which do not conflict with a normal exploitation of the work [, performance or phonogram,] and do not unreasonably prejudice the legitimate interests of the right holder.]
 

[2. It shall be lawful, without the authorization of the author and without payment of any remuneration, to do the following:
 

a) quote published works in another work, provided that the source and the name of the author are given, and on condition that the quotations are made in accordance with fair practice and to the extent justified by the purpose; 
 

b) reproduce by reprographic means for teaching or for the holding of examinations in educational establishments, to the extent justified by the purpose, articles lawfully published in newspapers or magazines, or brief extracts from lawfully published works, on condition that such use is made in accordance with fair practice, that it does not entail sale or any other transaction for payment and that no profit-making purposes are directly or indirectly pursued thereby;
 

c) reproduce a work in single copies on behalf of a library or for archives whose activities are not conducted for any direct or indirect profit-making purposes, provided that the original forms part of the permanent collection of the said library or archives and the reproduction is made for the following purposes:
 

i) preserve the original and replace it in the event of loss, destruction or irreparable damage; 
 

ii) replace, in the permanent collection of another library or archives, an original that has been lost, destroyed or irreparably damaged;
 

d) reproduce a work for the purposes of judicial or administrative proceedings, to the extent justified by the purpose;
 

e) reproduce and distribute through the press, or transmit by broadcasting or public cable distribution, articles on topical subjects and commentaries on economic, political or religious subjects published in newspapers or magazines, or broadcast works of the same nature, insofar as reproduction, broadcasting or distribution to the public have not been expressly reserved;
 

f) reproduce and make available to the public, in connection with the reporting of current events by means of photography, cinematography, broadcasting or cable distribution to the public, works seen or heard in the course of such events, to the extent justified by the purpose of the information;
 

g) reproduce in the press or by broadcasting or transmission to the public political speeches and also dissertations, addresses, sermons, speeches delivered in the course of judicial proceedings or other works of similar character presented in public, for the purpose of reporting current events, to the extent justified by the purpose and subject to the right of the authors to publish collections of such works;
 

h) undertake the reproduction, transmission by broadcasting or cable distribution to the public of the image of an architectural work, work of fine art, photographic work or work of applied art located permanently in a place open to the public;
 

i) In the case of broadcasting organizations, make ephemeral recordings using their own facilities and for use in their own broadcasts of a work in respect of which they have the right of broadcasting. The broadcasting organization shall be obliged to destroy the recording within the time or under the circumstances provided for in national legislation;
 

j) effect the performance of a work in the course of the activities of an educational institution, by the staff and students of the said institution, provided that no charge is made for admission and no direct or indirect profit-making purpose is pursued, and that the audience consists solely of the staff and students of the institution or relations or guardians of students and other persons directly associated with the activities of the institution;
 

k) in the case of a broadcasting organization, make a transmission or retransmission of a work originally broadcast by it, provided that the public transmission or retransmission occurs at the same time as the original broadcast and the work is broadcast or transmitted publicly without any change.]
 

[2. The following shall be considered lawful acts, not requiring authorization from the copyright holder and not requiring payment, but with the obligation to mention the source and name of the author, when these are indicated in the work:
 

1. To reproduce and distribute in printed or broadcast form, or by cable transmission, information, news and articles about current affairs, in cases where reproduction, broadcast or public communication has not been expressly prohibited;
 

2. To reproduce and make available to the public, as information relating to current events through photography, audiovisual work, broadcasting or cable transmission, fragments of works seen or heard in the course of such events, as justified by the purpose of the information; and,
 

3. To make use of, through any public communication medium, political or legal speeches, dissertations, addresses, sermons and other similar works, pronounced in public for information purposes, on events of current affairs, with their authors retaining exclusive right to publish them for other purposes.
 

4. With regard to works already lawfully published, the reproduction of one copy of the work for the personal and exclusive use of the user, made by the interested party, using his or her own means, shall be permitted without authorization from the author and without remuneration.
 

5. Also legal are photomechanical reproductions such as photocopies and microfilm, made for exclusive personal use, provided these are limited to small parts of protected works or to works that are out of print.

6. When it is impossible to acquire a copy in reasonable condition, public libraries may reproduce the work for the exclusive use of their readers, and as necessary.
 

7. For the purposes of its conservation and for the lending service between public libraries, one copy of protected works deposited in their archive collections that are out of print. Such copies may also be reproduced, in a single copy by the library that receives them, as necessary for their conservation, and with a sole purpose of being used by their readers, on condition that the act of reprographic reproduction is an isolated event, which if repeated shall occur on isolated and unrelated occasions.
 

8. Reprographic reproduction of articles, lectures, lessons, and short extracts or short lawfully published works is permitted for teaching purposes or for use in examinations in educational establishments, provided such reproduction is not for profit and is limited to the quantity justified by the objective being pursued, and on condition that such use is done in accordance with honest uses.
 

9. Free reproduction is permitted of a single manuscript or typewritten copy made personally or exclusively by the interested party, of an educational or scientific work, for his or her own use, and not for profit, either direct or indirect.
 

10. Works of art permanently displayed in streets, squares and other public places, may be lawfully reproduced by means of an art other than that used in producing the original. In the case of buildings, this faculty is restricted to the external facade.
 

11. A computer program may lawfully be reproduced in a single copy, exclusively for backup or security purposes; and a computer program may lawfully be introduced into the internal memory of a computer, for exclusive use by the user.
 

12. Laws, regulations, agreements and other provisions emanating from the corresponding State bodies, can be published individually or in collections by private individuals, provided their full official text is respected. They may also be inserted without authorization in newspapers, and in works, which, in view of their nature or purpose, it is convenient to cite, comment on, criticize or copy them in verbatim form.]
 

[3. Each Party shall apply the provisions of Article 18 of the Berne Convention for the Protection of Literary and Artistic Works (and Article 14.6 of the TRIPS Agreement), mutatis mutandis, to the subject matter, rights and obligations provided for in this Agreement.]
 

Article XX. [Rights conferred to copyright and related rights]
 

[Each party shall provide that for copyright and related rights:
 

a) any person acquiring or holding [any] economic rights may freely and separately transfer such rights [in any form] [by contract] [for the purposes of exploitation and enjoyment by the assignee]; and,
 

b) any person acquiring or holding [any] such economic rights [by virtue of a contract, including contracts of employment underlying the creation of [any type of] works and phonograms, ]

shall be able to exercise those rights in its own name and enjoy fully the benefits derived from those rights.]
 

[No Party may grant translation and reproduction licenses permitted under the Appendix to the Berne Convention where legitimate needs in that Party's territory for copies or translations of the work could be met by the right holder's voluntary actions but for obstacles created by the Party's measures.]
 

Article XX. [Related rights] [Limitations or exceptions to Related rights]
 

[1. The protection provided for related rights shall in no way affect the protection of the copyright in scientific, artistic or literary works.

None of the provisions contained in this Chapter may be interpreted in such a manner as would diminish the said protection. 

In the event of conflict, the author's best interests shall always prevail.]
 

[1. Protection [offered by provisions relating to] [provided under this chapter, with regard to]

[the rights of] performers, [of] producers of phonograms and [of] broadcasting organizations, [shall keep intact and]shall not in any way affect 

[the economic and moral rights of the authors of] [the protection of copyrights on] literary or artistic works

[, nor shall it be interpreted to the detriment of such protection.] [Consequently, none of the provisions contained in this Agreement can be interpreted to the detriment of the respective protection.] ]
 

[2. With respect to related rights, each Party may establish limitations or exceptions according to the provisions of the Rome Convention.]
 

[2. Parties may in their domestic legislation provide for the same kinds of limitations or exceptions with regard to the protection of performers, producers of phonograms and broadcasting organizations, as they provide for in their national legislation in connection with the protection of copyright in literary and artistic works. 
 

Parties shall confine limitations or exceptions to the rights provided for in this Title to certain special cases that do not conflict with a normal exploitation of the phonogram and do not unreasonably prejudice the legitimate interests of the performers, producers of phonograms and broadcasting organizations.]
 

[2.Each Party shall confine limitations or exceptions to the rights established in this article to certain special cases that do not conflict with a normal exploitation of the phonogram and do not unreasonably prejudice the legitimate interests of the right holder, to the extent permitted by the Rome Convention.]
 

[Obligations Pertaining Specifically to Related Rights
 

Each Party shall accord the protection provided under this Agreement to the performers and producers of phonograms who are nationals of other Parties and to performances or phonograms first published or fixed in a country Party to this Agreement. A performance or phonogram shall be considered first published in any Party in which it is published within 30 days of its original publication. (8)
 

Each Party shall provide to performers the right to authorize or prohibit (a) the broadcasting and communication to the public of their unfixed performances except where the performance is already a broadcast performance, and (b) the fixation of their unfixed performances.
 

With respect to all rights of performers and producers of phonograms, the enjoyment and exercise of these rights provided for in this Agreement shall not be subject to any formality.]
 

Article XX. Rights of Performers 
 

[1. In respect of a fixation of their performance on a phonogram, performers shall have the possibility

of preventing the following acts when undertaken without their authorization: the fixation of their unfixed performance and the reproduction of such fixation. Performers shall also have the possibility of preventing the following acts when undertaken without their authorization: the broadcasting by wireless means and the communication to the public of their live performance.

The provisions of Article 14(6) of the TRIPS Agreement shall also apply, mutatis mutandis, to the rights of performers and producers of phonograms in phonograms.]
 

[Each of the Parties shall grant to performers, exclusive right to undertake or authorize the following acts:
 

1. Broadcasts of their performances, except when such broadcast:
 

a) Is based on the fixation of a performance and the work transferred should appear with the signature of the author, or his or her pseudonym, the transferee may not modify it; if the editor or owner of the communications medium changes it without the consent of the transferor, the latter may request insertion of full and faithful diffusion of the article transferred, without prejudice to his or her eventual right to claim compensation. When the article transferred should appear unsigned by the author, the editor or owner of the communications medium concerned may make changes or modifications of form, without the consent of the transferor.
 

b) Is a rebroadcast authorized by the broadcasting organization that was the first to broadcast the performance;
 

2. Communication to the public of their performances, except when such communication:
 

a) Is based on a fixation of a performance; and
 

b) Is based on a broadcast of a performance.
 

3. Fixation of their unfixed performances;
 

4. Reproduction of a fixation of their performances;
 

5. The first distribution to the public of a fixation of their performances, by sale or any other form of ownership transfer;
 

6. Rental or loan to the public of a fixation of their performances; and,
 

7. Making available to the public, by wire or wireless means, of their performances fixed in a phonogram, such that anyone may access them from a place and at a time individually chosen by them.]
 

[1. Performers have the exclusive right to authorize or prohibit: 
 

a) the fixation of their performance; 
 

b) the reproduction and public performance of their performance or fixed performance; 
 

c) the broadcasting of their fixed or unfixed performance; 
 

d) the communication to the public of their performances in such a way that any person may access them from a place and a time individually chosen by them;]
 

[1. Each Party shall grant performers [the rights established in the Rome Convention. This shall include] the right to authorize or prohibit:
 

a) the fixation of their unfixed performances or the reproduction of such fixation;
 

b) communication to the public, broadcast and rebroadcast by wireless means [of their performances]; and,
 

c) any form of use of their performances.
 

Paragraph 1 shall not apply once a performer has consented that his performance be incorporated into a visual or audiovisual fixation.]
 

[Those rights not explicitly transferred shall be considered as reserved for the performer.]
 

[1. Performers, or their successors in title, shall have the exclusive right to: 
 

a) authorize or prohibit the fixation, reproduction or public communication of their interpretations or performances by any means or procedure. 
 

b) Performers shall also have the moral right to have their name or pseudonym associated with their interpretations and to prevent any deformation of the work that jeopardizes its integrity or reputation. ]
 

[1. Economic Rights of Performers in their Unfixed Performances
 

Performers shall enjoy the exclusive right of authorizing, as regards their performances:
 

a) the broadcasting and communication to the public of their unfixed performances, except where the performance is already a broadcast performance; and
 

b) the fixation of their unfixed performances.
 

Right of Reproduction
 

Performers shall enjoy the exclusive right of authorizing the direct or indirect reproduction of their performances fixed in phonograms, in any manner or form.
 

Right of Distribution
 

a) Performers shall enjoy the exclusive right of authorizing the making available to the public of the original and copies of their fixed performances, through sale or other transfer of ownership.
 

b) Nothing in this Agreement shall affect the freedom of Parties to determine the conditions, if any, under which the exhaustion of the right in paragraph (1) applies after the first sale or other transfer of ownership of the original or a copy of the fixed performance with the authorization of the performer.
 

Right of Rental
 

a) Performers shall enjoy the exclusive right of authorizing the commercial rental to the public of the original and copies of their fixed performances, as determined in the national law of Contracting Parties, even after distribution of them by, or pursuant to, authorization by the performer.
 

b) Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph (1), a Party that, at the time of entry into force of the Agreement, had and continues to have in force a system of equitable remuneration of performers for the rental of copies of their performances fixed in phonograms, may maintain that system provided that the commercial rental of phonograms is not giving rise to the material impairment of the exclusive right of reproduction of performers.
 

Right of Making Available of Fixed Performances
 

Performers shall enjoy the exclusive right of authorizing the making available to the public of their fixed performances, by wire or wireless means, in such a way that members of the public may access them from a place and at a time individually chosen by them.]
 
 
 

[2. Moral Rights 
 

1. Independently of a performer's economic rights, and even after the transfer of those rights, the performer shall, as regards his live aural performances or performances fixed in phonograms, have the right to claim to be identified as the performer of his performances, except where omission is dictated by the manner of the use of the performance, and to object to any distortion, mutilation or other modification of his performances that would be prejudicial to his reputation.
 

2. The rights granted to a performer in accordance with paragraph (1) shall, after his death, be maintained, at least until the expiry of the economic rights, and shall be exercisable by the persons or institutions authorized by the legislation of the Contracting Party where protection is claimed. However, those Contracting Parties whose legislation, at the moment of their ratification of or accession to this Treaty, does not provide for protection after the death of the performer of all rights set out in the preceding paragraph may provide that some of these rights will, after his death, cease to be maintained.]
 

[2. Performers have the moral rights of integrity and authorship of their performances, even after the transfer of the economic rights. Parties may authorize in their domestic legislation the reduction, compacting, editing or dubbing of the work under the responsibility of the producer, who shall not distort the artist's performance.]
 

[3. The term of protection available [under this Agreement] to performers [and producers of phonograms] shall last at least until the end of a period of 50 years, computed from the end of the calendar year in which the fixation was made or the performance took place.]
 

[3. The duration of the protection granted under this chapter to performers and producers of phonograms shall not be less than 75 years from the end of the calendar year in which the fixation was made or the performance took place.]
 

[3. The duration of the protection granted in this chapter shall be eighty (80) years, from Jan 1 of the year following the performance, in the case of performances that have not been fixed, or from the date of publication, when the performance is recorded in a sound or audiovisual physical support.]
 

Article XX. [Protection of Audiovisual Performers
 

Parties shall provide for protection of audiovisual performers as determined by the relevant international instrument.]
 

Article XX. Rights of Producers of Phonograms
 

[1. Producers of phonograms shall enjoy the right to authorize or prohibit the direct or indirect

reproduction of their phonograms.

The provisions of Article XX in respect of computer programs shall apply mutatis mutandis

to producers of phonograms and any other right holders in phonograms as determined in a Party's law. If at the time of entry into force of this agreement, a Party has in force a system of equitable remuneration of right holders in respect of the rental of phonograms, it may maintain such system provided that the commercial rental of phonograms is not giving rise to the material impairment of the exclusive rights of reproduction of right holders.]
 

[1. Each of the Parties shall grant to phonogram producers the exclusive right to authorize or prohibit: reproduction, whether direct or indirect, or communication and distribution to the public of the original and copies of their phonograms, by sale or transfer of ownership, rental, loan, or importation, making said phonograms available to the public by any means, such that members of the public may access them from a place and at a time individually chosen by them; or any other form of using their phonograms.]
 

[1. Producers of phonograms have the exclusive right to authorize or prohibit: 
 

a) direct or indirect, total or partial reproduction of their phonograms; 
 

b) distribution through sale of copies of the reproduction; 
 

c) the making available to the public of their phonograms in such a way that any person may access them from a place and a time individually chosen by them. ]
 

[1. Each Party shall grant producers of phonograms the right to authorize or prohibit:
 

a) direct or indirect [,total or partial,] reproduction of their phonogram;
 

b) importation into its territory of copies of phonograms made without the authorization of the producer;
 

c) The first public distribution of the original and each copy of the phonogram by sale, rental or otherwise [; and
 

d) The commercial rental of the original or of a copy of the phonogram, except where expressly otherwise provided in a contract between the producer of the phonogram and the authors of the works therein.] ]
 

[Each Party shall grant producers of phonograms and to all other right holders of phonograms, as determined in their legislation, the right to authorize or prohibit the commercial lease to the public of originals or copies of protected phonograms. [Nevertheless, if upon entry into force of this Agreement, a Party applies an equitable remuneration system of right holders as to the lease of phonograms, the Party may maintain such system, provided that such lease is not causing serious injury to the exclusive rights of reproduction of said right holders.] ]
 

[1. Producers of phonograms shall have the exclusive right to: 
 

a) authorize or prohibit the reproduction of their phonograms. Importation and distribution of phonograms shall be permitted, provided that they are legitimate. 
 

b) Producers of phonograms shall have the right to receive compensation for transmission of the phonogram to the public.]
 

[1. Right of Reproduction
 

Producers of phonograms shall enjoy the exclusive right of authorizing the direct or indirect reproduction of their phonograms, in any manner or form.
 

Right of Distribution
 

a) Producers of phonograms shall enjoy the exclusive right of authorizing the making available to the public of the original and copies of their phonograms through sale or other transfer of ownership.
 

b) Nothing in this Treaty shall affect the freedom of Contracting Parties to determine the conditions, if any, under which the exhaustion of the right in paragraph (1) applies after the first sale or other transfer of ownership of the original or a copy of the phonogram with the authorization of the producer of the phonogram.
 

Right of Rental
 

a) Producers of phonograms shall enjoy the exclusive right of authorizing the commercial rental to the public of the original and copies of their phonograms, even after distribution of them by or pursuant to authorization by the producer.
 

b) Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph (1), a Contracting Party that, on April 15, 1994, had and continues to have in force a system of equitable remuneration of producers of phonograms for the rental of copies of their phonograms, may maintain that system provided that the commercial rental of phonograms is not giving rise to the material impairment of the exclusive rights of reproduction of producers of phonograms.
 

Right of Making Available of Phonograms
 

Producers of phonograms shall enjoy the exclusive right of authorizing the making available to the public of their phonograms, by wire or wireless means, in such a way that members of the public may access them from a place and at a time individually chosen by them. 
 

Right to Remuneration for Broadcasting and Communication to the Public
 

1. Performers and producers of phonograms shall enjoy the right to a single equitable remuneration for the direct or indirect use of phonograms published for commercial purposes for broadcasting or for any communication to the public.
 

2. Contracting Parties may establish in their national legislation that the single equitable remuneration shall be claimed from the user by the performer or by the producer of a phonogram or by both. Contracting Parties may enact national legislation that, in the absence of an agreement between the performer and the producer of a phonogram, sets the terms according to which performers and producers of phonograms shall share the single equitable remuneration.
 

3. For the purposes of this Article, phonograms made available to the public by wire or wireless means in such a way that members of the public may access them from a place and at a time individually chosen by them shall be considered as if they had been published for commercial purposes.]
 

[2. Each Party shall provide that putting the original or of a copy of a phonogram on the market with the right holder's consent, shall not exhaust the rental right]
 

[3. The term of protection conferred on the producers of phonograms may be no less than 50 years, calculated from the end of the calendar year in which the fixation has been made.]
 

[3. Each Party shall provide a term of protection of phonograms of at least 50 years from the end of the calendar year in which the first fixation was made.]
 

[3. The protection granted to the producer of a phonogram shall be eighty (80) years from January 1 of the year following the first publication of the phonogram.]
 

Article XX. Rights of Broadcasting Organizations
 

[1. "Broadcasting organizations" means radio and television companies that transmit programs to the public.

Each of the Parties shall grant to broadcasting organizations the exclusive right to authorize or prohibit;
 

1. The fixation of their broadcasts;
 

2. Reproduction of the fixation of their broadcasts without their consent, except:
 

a) When this is for private use
 

b) When short fragments have been used for the purpose of reporting on current events;
 

c) When it is a short-lived fixation made by a broadcasting organizations itself for its own broadcasts; and,
 

d) When it is to be used exclusively for teaching or research purposes.
 

3. The rebroadcast of their transmissions; and,
 

4. Communication to the public of their broadcasts, in the case of television, in public places, involving an entry fee.]
 

[1. Broadcasting organizations shall have the right to prohibit the following acts when undertaken without their authorization: the fixation, reproduction of fixations and retransmission by wireless means of broadcast, as well as communication to the public of television broadcasts [, without prejudice to the rights of the owners of intellectual property included in the programming.] [Where Parties do not grant such rights to broadcasting organizations, they shall provide owners of copyright in the subject matter of broadcasts with the possibility of preventing the above acts, subject to the provisions of TRIPS Article 14 (3).] ]
 

[1. Each Party shall provide broadcasting organizations with the right to authorize or prohibit:
 

a) the fixation and reproduction of the fixations of their broadcasts;
 

b) retransmission, [subsequent] distribution by cable, optic fiber or any other means communication to the public of their broadcasts; and
 

c) reception, in relation to commercial activities, of their broadcasts.

Violation of the rights mentioned in paragraph 1 shall be the cause of civil liability, with or without penal liability, in accordance with the legislation of each Party.]
 

[1. Broadcasting organizations shall have the exclusive right to authorize or prohibit the fixation, reproduction and retransmission of their broadcasts by any means or procedure.]
 

[1. Parties shall provide for protection for broadcasting organizations as determined by the relevant international instrument.]
 

[1.Broadcasting organizations shall enjoy the right to authorize or prohibit:
 

a) the retransmission of their broadcasts by any means or process;
 

b) the fixing of their broadcasts on a physical medium;
 

c) the reproduction of a fixation of their broadcasts.
 

2. The broadcast referred to in the foregoing Article shall include the production of program-carrying signals intended for a broadcasting or telecommunication satellite, and also distribution to the public by a body that broadcasts or disseminates the transmissions of others received by means of such a satellite.
 

Limitations and Exceptions
 

1. Parties may, in their national legislation, provide for the same kinds of limitations or exceptions with regard to the protection of performers and producers of phonograms as they provide for, in their national legislation, in connection with the protection of copyright in literary and artistic works.
 

2. Parties shall confine any limitations of or exceptions to rights provided for in this Agreement to certain special cases which do not conflict with a normal exploitation of the performance or phonogram and do not unreasonably prejudice the legitimate interests of the performer or of the producer of the phonogram.]
 

[2. The term of protection of broadcasting organizations shall not be less than 75 years from the end of the calendar year in which the broadcast took place.]
 

[2. The term of protection granted [to broadcasting organizations] shall last for at least 20 years from the end of the [calendar] [civil] year in which the [broadcast] [emission] took place.]
 

[2. The protection granted to broadcasting organizations shall be eighty (80) years from January 1 of the year following the broadcast.]
 

[2. Term of Protection
 

1. The term of protection to be granted to performers under this Agreement shall last, at least, until the end of a period of 50 years computed from the end of the year in which the performance was fixed in a phonogram.
 

2. The term of protection to be granted to producers of phonograms under this Agreement shall last, at least, until the end of a period of 50 years computed from the end of the year in which the phonogram was published, or failing such publication within 50 years from fixation of the phonogram, 50 years from the end of the year in which the fixation was made. 
 

3. The term of protection of the rights of broadcasting organizations may not be less than 50 years, counted from January 1 of the year following that in which the broadcast occurred.]
 

Article XX. [Protection of program-carrying satellite signals]
 

[1. Each of the Parties shall consider the following acts to be infringements of related rights:
 

1. Fix and reproduce or retransmit protected broadcasts, without authorization from the broadcasting organization concerned; 
 

2. Manufacture or import, for sale or rent, a device or medium especially conceived or adapted to render inoperable any device or medium designed to obstruct or limit reproduction of a work or impair the quality of copies made;
 

3. Distribute, import for distribution, broadcast, communicate or make available to the public, without authority, performances, copies of fixed performances or phonograms knowing that electronic rights management information has been removed or altered without authorization.
 

Any such device or medium mentioned above, or any copy thereof, in which rights management information has been suppressed or altered, shall be likened to unlawful copying or falsification of the work concerned.]
 

[1.Within one year from the date of entry into force of this Agreement, each Party shall make it:
 

a) a criminal offense to manufacture, import, sell, lease or any other commercial act that makes available a device or system that is primarily of assistance in decoding an encrypted program carrying satellite signal without the authorization of the lawful distributor of such signal; and 
 

b) a civil offense to receive, in connection with commercial activities, or further distribute, an encrypted program carrying satellite signal that has been decoded without the authorization of the lawful distributor of the signal or to engage in any activity prohibited under subparagraph (a). 
 

Each Party shall provide that any civil offense established under subparagraph (b) of paragraph 1, shall be actionable by any person that holds an interest in the content of such signal.]
 

[1. The Parties shall consider, as a civil offense, jointly or not with a criminal offense, and in conformity with their national legislation, the manufacture, importation, sale, renting or leasing or any other activity that permits the use of a device or system that is primarily of assistance in decoding an encrypted program carrying satellite signal without the authorization of the lawful distributor of that signal.]
 

[1. Parties shall make it:
 

a) a criminal offense to manufacture, assemble, modify, import, export, sell, lease or otherwise distribute a tangible or intangible device or system, knowing or having reason to know that the device or system is primarily of assistance in decoding an encrypted program-carrying satellite signal without the authorization of the lawful distributor of such signal; 
 

b) a criminal offense willfully to receive or further distribute an encrypted program- carrying satellite signal that has been decoded without the authorization of the lawful distributor of the signal; and 
 

c) a civil offense to engage in any activity prohibited under paragraph (a) or (b).
 

Parties shall provide that any civil offense established under paragraph (c) shall be actionable by any person that holds an interest in the encrypted programming signal or the content thereof.]
 

Article XX. [Obligations concerning technological measures]
 

[Parties shall provide adequate legal protection and effective legal remedies against the circumvention of effective technological measures that are used by performers, producers of phonograms, or broadcasting organizations in connection with the exercise of their rights under this Agreement or the Berne Convention and that restrict acts, in respect of their performances or phonograms, which are not authorized by the performers or the producers of phonograms concerned or permitted by law. ]
 

[ In order to provide adequate legal protection and effective legal remedies against the circumvention of effective technological measures that are used by authors, by performers, by producers of phonograms and their successors in interest in connection with the exercise of their rights and that restrict unauthorized acts in respect of their works, performances and phonograms, each Party shall provide that any person who
 

a) knowingly, or having reasonable grounds to know, circumvents without authority any effective technological measure; or
 

b) manufactures, imports, distributes, offers to the public, provides or otherwise traffics in devices, products or components or offers to the public or provides services, which:
 

i) are promoted, advertised or marketed for the purpose of circumvention of any effective technological measure, or
 

ii) have only a limited commercially significant purpose or use other than to circumvent any effective technological measure, or
 

iii) are primarily designed, produced, adapted or performed for the purpose of enabling or facilitating the circumvention of any effective technological measure;
 

shall be guilty of an offense, and shall be liable, upon the suit of any injured party, to relief by way of damages, injunction, accounts or otherwise.
 

c) 'effective technological measure' means any technology, device or component that, in the normal course of its operation, controls access to a protected work, performance, phonogram, or other subject matter, or protects any copyright or any rights related to copyright.
 

d) The prohibition referred to in Article 10.8(b) prohibits circumvention of technological measures and does not require an affirmative response to such measures. This Article does not require that the design of, or the design and selection of parts and components for, a consumer electronics, telecommunications or computing product provide for a response to any particular technological measure. This does not provide a defense to a claim of violation of Article 10.8(b). 
 

e) Each Party shall provide that a violation of the law implementing the provisions of this Article is independent of any infringement that might occur under the Party's law on copyright and related rights.]
 

Article XX. [Obligations concerning rights management information
 

In order to provide adequate and effective legal remedies to protect rights management information
 

a) each Party shall provide that any person who without authority, and knowingly, or, with respect to civil remedies, having reasonable grounds to know, that it will induce, enable, facilitate, or conceal an infringement of any copyright or related right,
 

i) knowingly removes or alters any rights management information;
 

ii) distributes or imports for distribution rights management information knowing that the rights management information has been removed or altered without authority; or
 

iii) distributes, imports for distribution, broadcasts, communicates or makes available to the public copies of works or phonograms, knowing that rights management information has been removed or altered without authority,
 

shall be guilty of an offense, and shall be liable, upon the suit of any injured party, to relief by way of damages, injunction, accounts or otherwise. 
 

b) 'Rights management information' means information which identifies a work, performance, or phonogram; the author of the work, the performer of the performance, or the producer of the phonogram; or the owner of any right in the work, performance or phonogram, or information about the terms and conditions of the use of the work, performance or phonogram, and any numbers or codes that represent such information, when any of these items is attached to a copy of the work, performance or phonogram or appears in conjunction with the communication or making available of a work, performance or phonogram to the public. Nothing in this section requires the owner of any right in the work, performance or phonogram to attach rights management information to copies of it or to cause rights management information to appear in connection with a communication of the work, performance or phonogram to the public.]
 

Article XX. [Collective Administration of Rights
 

Parties shall facilitate and encourage collective administration of the rights enshrined in this Agreement., recognizing the legitimacy of societies formed for this purpose to exercise such rights, under the terms of their own statutes, and enforce them in administrative and judicial proceedings, without presenting any legal title other than those statutes. There shall be a presumption, in the absence of evidence to the contrary, that the rights so exercised have been directly or indirectly entrusted to them by their respective owners.
 

Parties shall establish measures to guarantee that societies are obliged to administer the rights that their owners entrust them with.
 

The decisions and actions of societies for the collective administration of rights shall be guided by transparency and due participation of their respective members.
 

Societies for the collective administration of rights shall be subject to inspection and supervision by the State.]
 

[Article XX
 

Each Party shall issue appropriate administrative or executive decrees, laws, orders or regulations mandating that all government agencies use only computer software authorized for intended use. Such instruments shall actively regulate the acquisition and management of software for such government use.]
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

4) PROTECTION OF FOLKLORE
 

Article XX. [Protection of Folklore]
 

[1. The Parties shall ensure effective protection of all expressions of folklore, particularly those forms that are the product of the traditional and folk culture of indigenous, Afro-American and native cultures.]
 

[1. Each of the Parties shall protect traditional and popular culture manifested in any kind of folklore expression and production, as well as creations of popular art or craftwork.]
 

[1. Each Party shall protect the literary, artistic, folk art and crafts, as well as all the indigenous expressions in their own languages, and the uses, customs and traditions of pluricultural composition originating from each of the Parties which do not have an identifiable author.
 

2. Each Party shall protect literary, artistic, folk art and crafts developed and perpetuated in a community or ethnic group originating from or having its roots in each of the Parties against any distortion caused with the intent to damage or affect the reputation or image of the community or ethnic group to which it belongs.
 

3. Each Party shall stipulate that in any fixation, representation or publication, communication or use in any form of a literary, artistic, folk art and crafts shall mention the community or ethnic group to which it belongs.]
 

[1. Each Party shall ensure the effective protection of all expressions of folklore and artistic expressions of the traditional and popular culture of indigenous and local communities.]
 

5) LAYOUT-DESIGNS OF INTEGRATED CIRCUITS
 

[Article XX. Layout-designs of integrated circuits

Members agree to provide protection to the layout-designs (topographies) of integrated circuits (referred to in this Agreement as "layout-designs") in accordance with Article 35 TRIPs, and in addition, to comply with the following provisions.
 

[Article XX.
 

The Parties agree to provide protection to layout designs (topographies) of integrated circuits (referred to in this Agreement as "layout designs") in accordance with Article 35 of the TRIPS Agreement. ]
 

[Article XX. Layout-designs of integrated circuits
 

Members agree that the protection conferred on topographies of integrated circuits shall be that provided in Section 6 of the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS Agreement, 1994).]
 

[ Article XX. Scope of the Protection
 

Subject to the provisions of Article xx, Members shall consider unlawful the following acts if performed without the authorization of the right holder: importing, selling, or otherwise distributing for commercial purposes a protected layout-design, an integrated circuit in which a protected layout-design is incorporated, or an article incorporating such an integrated circuit only in so far as it continues to contain an unlawfully reproduced layout-design. ]
 

[ Article XX. Scope of Protection 
 

Without prejudice to what is stipulated in paragraph 1 of the next article, the Parties shall deem the following acts as illicit, if they are produced without the consent of the copyright holder (9): the importation, sale or distribution by a different method for commercial purposes of a protected diagram drawing, an integrated circuit containing a protected diagram drawing or a product with that integrated circuit, only if they continue to contain an illicitly reproduced diagram drawing. ]
 

[ Article XX. Acts Not Requiring the Authorization of the Right Holder
 

1. Notwithstanding Article xx, no Member shall consider unlawful the performance of any of the acts referred to in that Article in respect of an integrated circuit incorporating an unlawfully reproduced layout-design or any article incorporating such an integrated circuit where the person performing or ordering such acts did not know and had no reasonable ground to know, when acquiring the integrated circuit or article incorporating such an integrated circuit, that it incorporated an unlawfully reproduced layout-design. Members shall provide that, after the time that such person has received sufficient notice that the layout-design was unlawfully reproduced, that person may perform any of the acts with respect to the stock on hand or ordered before such time, but shall be liable to pay to the right holder a sum equivalent to a reasonable royalty such as would be payable under a freely negotiated licence in respect of such a layout-design.
 

2. The conditions set out in subparagraphs (a) through (k) of Article xx (Patents) shall apply mutatis mutandis in the event of any non-voluntary licensing of a layout-design or of its use by or for the government without the authorization of the right holder.
 

[ Article XX. Acts Not Requiring the Authorization of the Right Holder
 

1. Without prejudice to what was stipulated in the previous article, a Party shall consider none of the aforementioned acts as illicit in reference to an integrated circuit containing an illicitly reproduced diagram drawing or with any product having such an integrated circuit, when the person carrying out or ordering those actions is not aware and had no reasonable motive to know that, upon reception of that integrated circuit or product containing such an integrated circuit, it contained an illicitly reproduced diagram drawing. The Parties shall establish that after the person has had sufficient notice that the diagram drawing was illicitly reproduced, that person may complete any activity with the existing product or that was requested prior to that moment. However, he may be asked to pay the copyright holder an amount of money equal to a reasonable royalty that he would have had to pay for a freely negotiated license for such a diagram drawing.
 

2. The conditions set out in sections a) to k) in article XX (Other Uses without the Consent of the Copyright Holder) shall apply, mutatis mutandis, whenever a license is granted, unwillingly, for diagram drawings or when they are used by and for government without the consent of the copyright holder. ]
 

[ Article XX. Term of Protection 
 

1. In Members requiring registration as a condition of protection, the term of protection of layout-designs shall not end before the expiration of a period of 10 years counted from the date of filing an application for registration or from the first commercial exploitation wherever in the world it occurs.
 

2. In Members not requiring registration as a condition for protection, layout-designs shall be protected for a term of no less than 10 years from the date of the first commercial exploitation wherever in the world it occurs.
 

3. Notwithstanding paragraphs 1 and 2, a Member may provide that protection shall lapse 15 years after the creation of the layout-design.]
 

[ Article XX. Term of Protection 
 

1. In Parties where registration is required as a condition for protection, the duration of protection of layout designs shall last no less than ten years counted either from the date the registration application was filed, or from the date of its first commercial exploitation in any part of the world.
 

2. In Parties where registration is not required as a condition for protection, layout designs shall remain protected for a period of no less than 10 years counted from the date of their first commercial exploitation in any part of the world.
 

3. Notwithstanding paragraphs 1 and 2 above, any Party may establish that protection shall cease fifteeen (15) years after creation of the layout design. ]
 

[ Article XX. Term of Protection
 

1. Where each Party requires registration as a condition for protection, the protection of the diagram drawings shall not expire for a period of 10 years, beginning on the date when the registration request submission was made. ]
 

[Article XX. Definitions
 

1. The following shall be understood to mean:
 

a) Integrated circuit: a product, in its final or intermediate form, in which the elements, at least one of which is an active element, and some or all of the interconnections are integrally formed in and/or on a piece of material and which is intended to perform an electronic function.
 

b) Lay-out design: the three-dimensional disposition, however expressed, of the elements, at least one of which is an active element, and of some or all of the interconnections of an integrated circuit, or such a three-dimensional disposition prepared for an integrated circuit intended for manufacture.
 

2. A lay-out design shall be protected when original.
 

3. A lay-out design shall be considered to be original when it is the result of an intellectual effort by its creator and is not common in the industrial sector of integrated circuits.
 

4. When a lay-out design is made up of one or more elements that are common in the industrial sector of integrated circuits, it shall be considered to be original if the combination of such elements, as a whole, meet that condition.]
 

[Article XX. Definitions
 

1. Integrated circuit: a product, in final or intermediate form, whose elements, of which at least one is an active element, or one or all of its interconnections, form an integral part of the body or surface of a piece of material, which is designed to perform an electronic function.
 

2. Layout design: a three-dimensional design, in any medium, of the elements, of which at least one is active, and the interconnections, of an integrated circuit; as well as a three-dimensional arrangement prepared for an integrated circuit destined for manufacture. ]
 

[ Article XX. Condition for protection
 

1. A layout design shall be protected if it is original. A layout design shall be considered original if it is the result of its designer's own intellectual effort, and was not current in the integrated circuits industry sector.
 

2. If a layout design consists of one or more elements that are current in the integrated circuits industry sector, it shall be considered original if the combination of such elements, as a whole, comply with the above condition. ]
 

[Article XX. Layout-designs of integrated circuits
 

1. Each Party shall protect the lay-out designs (topographies) of integrated circuits (lay-out designs) in accordance with Articles 2 through 7 (other than paragraph 3 of Article 6), Article 12 and paragraph 3 of Article 16 of the Treaty on Intellectual Property in Respect of Integrated Circuits, adopted on 26 May 1989. 
 

2. Each Party shall consider it unlawful for any person to import, sell, or otherwise distribute for commercial purposes without the authorization of the right holder:
 

a) a protected lay-out design;
 

b) an integrated circuit in which a protected layout-design is incorporated;
 

c) an article incorporating such an integrated circuit only in so far as it contains an unlawfully reproduced layout-design.
 

3. No Party shall consider unlawful the performance of any of the acts in respect of an integrated circuit incorporating an unlawfully reproduced layout-design or any article incorporating such an integrated circuit where the person performing or ordering such acts did not know and had no reasonable ground to know, when acquiring the integrated circuit or article incorporating such an integrated circuit, that it incorporated an unlawfully reproduced layout-design. 
 

4. Each Party shall provide that, after the time that such person has received sufficient notice that the layout-design was unlawfully reproduced, that person may perform any of the acts with respect to the stock on hand or ordered before such time, but shall be liable to pay to the right holder a sum equivalent to a reasonable royalty such as would be payable under a freely negotiated license in respect of such a layout-design.
 

5. No Party shall permit obligatory licenses of lay-out designs of integrated circuits.
 

6. Parties requiring registration as a condition of protection of lay-out designs, shall stipulate that the term of protection shall not end before the expiration of a period of 10 years counted from the date:
 

a) of filing an application for registration; or 
 

b) from the first commercial exploitation wherever in the world it occurs.
 

7. When a Party does not require registration as a condition for protection, the Party shall provide that layout-designs be protected for a term of no less than 10 years from the date of the first commercial exploitation of the lay-out design, wherever in the world it occurs.
 

8. Parties shall provide that protection shall lapse 15 years after the creation of the layout-design.]
 

6) PATENTS 
 

[Article XX. Patents
 

1. Article 27bis of the TRIPs agreement , mutatis mutandis, shall apply in regards to patents. The provisions of this paragraph shall be reviewed 5 years after the date of entry of the FTAA agreement ]
 

[Article XX. Patentable Material
 

Without prejudice to what is set out in paragraphs 2 and 3, patents shall be granted for inventions, in all technological fields, for products or procedures, as long as they are novel, are the result of an inventive activity and may have an industrial application.
 

Subject to the provisions of paragraph 3, there shall be no discrimination in the granting of patents, or in benefiting from the corresponding rights, on the basis of technological field, territory of the Party which the invention was made, or whether the products were imported or produced locally.
 

Each Party may refuse to grant patents on inventions whose commercial use should be prevented in their territory to protect public order or morals, or to protect human, animal or plant health or life, or to avoid serious damage to nature or the environment, provided that exclusion is not made merely because its exploitation is prohibited by the legislation of the Party.
 

In addition, each Party may refuse to grant patents on plants and animals other than micro-organisms, and essentially biological processes for the production of plants or animals other than non-biological and microbiological processes. However, Parties shall provide for the protection of plant varieties either by patents or by an effective sui generis system or by any combination thereof.]
 

[ Article XX. Concept of invention
 

Each of the Parties shall consider as an invention any human creation that makes it possible to transform material or energy existing in nature, for exploitation in the immediate satisfaction of a concrete need. 
 

Article XX. The following shall not be considered inventions
 

a) Material that does not satisfy the definition of invention;
 

b) Theoretical or scientific principles;
 

c) Discoveries that consist of making known or revealing something already existing in nature, although previously unknown to man;
 

d) Biological material existing in nature;
 

e) Schemes, plans, rules and methods for performing mental acts, games or businesses;
 

f) Individual computer programs;
 

g) Modes of presentation of information;
 

h) Aesthetic creations and artistic or literary works
 

i) Diagnostic, therapeutic and surgical methods for the treatment of the human body and animals;
 

j) The juxtaposition of previously known inventions or mixtures of known products, variations in their form, dimensions or materials, except when in reality such combination or fusion does not function separately, or where the qualities or functions characteristic thereof are modified to obtain an industrial result that is non-obvious to a technical specialist in the respective field.
 

Article XX. The following shall not be patentable
 

The Parties shall not grant patents to: 
 

a) Essentially biological processes for obtaining or reproducing plants, animals or varieties thereof, including genetic processes or those relating to material capable of self-duplication, alone or by any other indirect means, when they consist of selecting or isolating available biological material and allowing it to act under natural conditions; and,
 

b) Plant varieties and species and animal species and races. ]
 

[Article XX. Patentable Subject Matter and Exceptions to Patentability
 

1. Patents shall be available for any inventions, whether products or processes, in all fields of technology, provided that they are new, involve an inventive step and are capable of industrial application.
 

a) An invention shall be considered novel when it is not included in the prior art. Prior art means the body of technical knowledge made public before the filing date of the patent application, or where applicable, the priority date granted; by means of an oral or written description, by exploitation or any other means of dissemination or information anywhere in the world.
 

b) Inventive step shall exist when the creative process of the results thereof cannot be deduced from the prior art in an obvious manner by a person skilled in the relevant art.
 

c) Industrial application shall exist when the object of the invention is conducive to achievement of a result or a product that can be used or produced in any type of industry.
 

2. The following, inter alia, shall not be considered as inventions:
 

a) discoveries;
 

b) all biological and genetic material existing in nature or a replica thereof, in the biological processes implicit in animal, plant and human reproduction, including genetic processes involving material of such a nature as to produce a replica of itself under normal and free conditions as in nature.
 

3. Subject to the exceptions in this Agreement, patents shall be available and patent rights enjoyable without discrimination as to the place of invention, the field of technology and whether the products are imported or locally produced.
 

4. Members may exclude from patentability inventions, the prevention within their territory of

the commercial exploitation of which is necessary to protect ordre public, safety, morality, and decency, including to protect human, animal or plant life, domestic nutrition, or to avoid serious prejudice to the environment, provided that such exclusion is not applied merely because the exploitation is prohibited by their law. 
 

5. Members may also exclude from patentability: 
 

a) diagnostic, therapeutic and surgical methods for the treatment of humans or animals;
 

b) plants and animals other than micro-organisms, and essentially biological processes

for the production of plants or animals other than non-biological and microbiological

processes.
 

6. However, Members shall provide for the protection of plant varieties either by patents or by an effective sui generis system.. For the purposes of the previous paragraph, the system of rights of breeders set forth in the International Convention for the Protection of New Varieties of Plants (UPOV) shall be considered an effective sui generis system.]
 

[Article XX. Patentable material and exceptions to patentability
 

1. Parties shall grant patents for inventions, whether goods or processes, in all areas of technology, provided these are new, involve an inventive step, and are industrially applicable.
 

a) An invention shall be deemed new when not included in the state of the art. The state of the art comprises everything that has been made available to the public by written or oral description, use, marketing, or any other means prior to the patent application filing date or, where appropriate, the validly claimed priority date.
 

b) An invention shall be regarded as involving an inventive step if, for a person in the trade with average skills in the technical field concerned, the said invention is neither obvious nor obviously derived from the state of the art.
 

c) An invention shall be regarded as industrially applicable when its subject matter may be produced or used in any type of industry; industry being understood as that involving any productive activity, including services. 
 

2. The following shall not be considered inventions:
 

a) discoveries, scientific theories, and mathematical methods;
 

b) any living thing, either complete or partial, as found in nature, natural biological processes, and biological material, as existing in nature, or able to be separated, including the genome or germ plasm of any living thing;
 

c) literary and artistic works or any other aesthetic creation protected by copyright; 
 

d) plans, rules, and methods for the pursuit of intellectual activities, playing of games, or economic and business activities;
 

e) computer programs and software, as such; and, 
 

f) methods for presenting information. 
 

3. The following shall not be patentable: 
 

a) inventions, the commercial exploitation of which in the territory of the respective Party has to be prevented in order to protect public order or morality, provided that such exclusion is not merely because the exploitation is prohibited or regulated by a legal or administrative provision;
 

b) inventions, the commercial exploitation of which in the territory of the respective Party has to be prevented in order to protect human or animal life or health, or to avoid serious injury to plant life and the environment, provided that such exclusion is not made merely because the exploitation is prohibited or regulated by a legal or administrative provision;
 

c) plants, animals, and essentially biological processes for the production of plants or animals other than non-biological or microbiological processes; 
 

d) diagnostic, therapeutic, and surgical methods for the treatment of humans or animals.
 

4. Microorganisms shall be paid in double until such time as different measures are adopted as a result of the examination envisaged in subsection (b) article 27, No 3 of the TRIPS Agreement. For this purpose, account shall be taken of the commitments assumed by the Parties under the Convention on Biological Diversity. ]
 

[Article XX. Patentable Material
 

1. Without prejudice to what is set out in this article, patents may be granted for all inventions, in all technological fields, for products or procedures, as long as they are novel, bring innovation and may have an industrial application.
 

a) An invention is considered novel when it is does not exist in current technology. Current technology covers all that has been disclosed or published, anywhere in the world and in whatever form, prior to the submission date for a patent application, or alternatively, when it is claimed before the official priority date. Solely for the purpose of assessing innovation, the application must also include the content of another patent being processed within the current state of technology, as well as its application or priority date, or alternatively, that preceded the patent application in question, but only if its content were part of the priority date application when it was published.
 

b) An invention is deemed to be innovative, if it is not self-evident or clearly derived from current technology for a person trained in that technical field.
 

c) An invention may be considered to have industrial applications when its purpose may be re-produced or utilized in any type of industry or productive activity.
 

3. The Parties may refuse to grant patents for inventions whose commercial exploitation must be banned on its territory to safeguard public order, morality, as well as protect the health and life of people, animals or plants, or to avoid serious harm to the environment, provided that that exclusion is not to ban, limit or restrain it through any legal or administrative provision.
 

4. The Parties may also refuse to grant patents for other reasons, such as:
 

a) Diagnostic, therapeutic and surgical methods used for the care of people or animals;
 

b) Fauna and flora, except for microorganisms, and the biological procedures as they exist in nature and that do not suggest human interference to produce plants and animals, save for microbiological procedures;
 

4. The Parties shall grant protection to obtaining plants through an efficient sui generis system, which is the legal obtainer system set out in the International Convention on Plant Breeders Rights (UPOV) and in the national legislation of each Party. ]
 

[Article XX. Rights Conferred
 

1. A patent shall confer on its owner the following exclusive rights:
 

a) where the subject matter of a patent is a product, to prevent third parties not having the owner's consent from the acts of: making, using, offering for sale, selling, or importing for these purposes that product; 
 

b) where the subject matter of a patent is a process, to prevent third parties not having the owner's consent from the act of using the process, and from the acts of: using, offering for sale, selling, or importing for these purposes at least the product obtained directly by that process. 
 

2. Patent owners shall also have the right to assign, or transfer by succession, the patent and to conclude licensing contracts. ]
 

[Article XX. Rights Conferred
 

A patent shall confer on its holder the following exclusive rights:
 

a) where the subject matter of a patent is a product, to prevent third parties not having the owner's consent from the acts of: making, using, offering for sale, selling, or importing for these purposes the patented product; or
 

b) where the subject matter of a patent is a process, to prevent third parties not having the owner's consent from the act of using the process, and from the acts of: using, offering for sale, selling, or importing for these purposes at least the product obtained directly by that process.
 

Patent owners shall also have the right to assign, or transfer by any medium, the patent, and to conclude licensing contracts. ]
 

[ Article XX. Rights conferred
 

The patent shall confer on its owner the right to prevent third parties from making use of the patented invention. It shall also confer the right to take action against any person who performs any of the following acts without the owner's consent:
 

1. If the patent has been granted for a product:
 

a) Manufacture the product; and
 

b) Offer for sale, sell or use the product, or import or store it for any of these purposes.
 

3. If the patent has been granted for a procedure:
 

a) Make use of the procedure; and
 

b) Perform any of the acts indicated in 1b above, with respect to a product that is the direct result of using the procedure. ]
 

[Article XX. Rights Conferred
 

1. The patent shall confer the following rights to its holder:
 

a) When the patent covers a product, it will prevent third parties from carrying out, without the holder's consent, the following: manufacture, use, offer to sell, the sale or importation of the patented product.
 

b) When the patent covers a procedure, it will prevent third parties from using the procedure and carrying out, without the holder's consent, the following: use, offer to sell, sale or importation, at the very least, of the product directly obtained by said procedure;
 

2. When the patent protects a biological product that claims to have specific characteristics, the protection shall also cover any biological material derived through multiplication or propagation of the patented product and having the same characteristics.
 

3. When the patent protects a biological product procedure that claims to have specific characteristics, the protection shall also cover all biological material derived through multiplication or propagation of the material directly obtained from the procedure and having the same characteristics.
 

4. When the patent protects a specific genetic sequence or biological material containing that sequence, the protection shall also cover any product that includes that sequence or material expressing that genetic information.
 

5. The invention patent protection will have a life of twenty years (20), commencing on the patent application date. ]
 
 
 

[Article XX. Rights Conferred and Limitations to Rights
 

1. A patent shall confer on its owner the right to prevent third parties not having the owner's consent from carrying out the following acts:
 

a) where the subject matter is a product: making, using, offering for sale, selling, or importing for these purposes that product; 
 

b) where the subject matter of the patent is a process: using, offering for sale, selling, or importing for these purposes at least the product obtained directly by that process.
 

2. Patent owners shall also have the right to assign, or transfer by succession, the patent and to conclude licensing contracts.
 

3. The term of protection available shall not end before the expiration of a period of 20 years counted from the filing date.]
 

[ Article XX. Rights conferred and limitations 
 

1. Patents shall have a term of twenty years counted from the filing date of the corresponding application.
 

2. The scope of the protection conferred by a patent shall be determined by the wording of the claims. The description and drawings, or the deposit of biological material, where applicable, shall be used in the interpretation of the claims.
 

3. A patent shall confer on its owner the right to prevent third parties, not having the owner's consent, from performing the following acts:
 

a) where the subject matter of a patent is a product: 
 

i) making the product;
 

ii) offering for sale, selling, or using the product; or importing it for these purposes; and,
 

b) where the subject matter of a patent is a process:
 

i) using the process; or,
 

ii) performing any of the acts that are specified under paragraph (a) above, with respect to a product obtained directly by that process. 
 

4. The patent owner may not exercise the right referred to in the previous article with respect to acts carried out:
 

b) in a private circle and for non-commercial purposes;
 

c) exclusively to experiment with the subject matter of the patented invention;
 

d) exclusively for the purposes of teaching or scientific or academic research;
 

e) the acts referred to in Article 5bis of the Paris Convention on the Protection of Industrial Property;
 

f) where the patent protects biological material that is capable of being reproduced, except for plants, using that material as a basis for obtaining a viable new material, except where the patented material must be used repeatedly to obtain the new material. ]
 
 
 

[Article XX. Conditions on Patent Applicants 
 

1. Members shall require that an applicant for a patent shall disclose the invention in a manner sufficiently clear and complete for the invention to be carried out by a person skilled in the art and may require the applicant to indicate the best mode for carrying out the invention known to the inventor at the filing date or, where priority is claimed, at the priority date of the application.
 

2. Members may require an applicant for a patent to provide information concerning the applicant's corresponding foreign applications and grants.]
 

[Article XX. Conditions on Patent Applicants
 

Each Party shall require that an applicant for a patent shall disclose the invention in a manner sufficiently clear and complete for the invention to be carried out by a person skilled in the art. In addition, each Party may require the applicant to indicate the best mode for carrying out the invention known to the inventor at the filing date or, where priority is claimed, at the priority date of the application.
 

Each Party may require an applicant for a patent to provide information concerning the applicant's corresponding foreign applications and grants. ]
 

[Article XX. Exceptions to Rights Conferred
 

Members may provide limited exceptions to the exclusive rights conferred by a patent, provided that such exceptions do not unreasonably conflict with a normal exploitation of the patent and do not unreasonably prejudice the legitimate interests of the patent owner, taking account of the legitimate interests of third parties. ]
 

[Article XX. Exceptions
 

Each Party may provide limited exceptions to the exclusive rights conferred by a patent, provided that such exceptions do not unreasonably conflict with a normal exploitation of the patent and do not unreasonably prejudice the legitimate interests of the patent owner, taking account of the legitimate interests of third parties.]
 

[Article XX. Exceptions
 

1. The rights conferred by the patent may only be enforced against acts performed by third parties for industrial and commercial purposes. In particular, such rights may not be enforced against acts performed exclusively in private and for non-commercial purposes, or for experiment, scientific research or teaching related to the object of the patented invention. The rights conferred by the patent may not be enforced against any person who markets, acquires or uses the patented product or a product obtained by the patented process, after this product has been lawfully introduced into national or international commerce by the owner of the patent or by his or her licensees.
 

The patent does not confer the right to prevent the acts mentioned in Article 5 of the Paris Convention on the protection of industrial property.
 

2. The rights conferred by a patent may not be enforced against a person who can prove that, prior to the date of application or, if appropriate, the date of priority of the application for the corresponding patent, he or she was already producing the product, or using the procedure that constitutes the invention in the country. That person shall have the right to continue producing the product and using the procedure as he or she had been doing, but this right may only be transferred or assigned together with the establishment or enterprise in which such production or use was being made.
 

This exception shall not apply if the person acquired knowledge of the invention by unfair means. ]
 

[Article XX. Limitations and exceptions to rights conferred]
 

1. Members may provide limited exceptions to the exclusive rights conferred by a patent, provided that such exceptions do not unreasonably conflict with a normal exploitation of the patent and do not unreasonably prejudice the legitimate interests of the patent owner, taking account of the legitimate interests of third parties.
 

2. Members may stipulate in laws that the rights conferred on patent holders shall not prevent unauthorized third parties from making, in necessary and sufficient quantity, the patented product or the product produced using the patented procedure and to perform all the other acts necessary for the purposes of approving the marketing of products. Marketing thereof shall be done following the expiry of the patent.]
 

[Article XX. Conferred Rights Exceptions
 

The Members may provide some limited exceptions to the exclusive rights granted by a patent, on condition that they do not infringe unjustifiably on the normal exploitation of the patent nor cause an unjustified prejudice against the legitimate interests of the patent holder, but consider the legitimate interests of third parties. ]
 

[Article XX. Exhaustion of Rights
 

1. This Agreement shall not affect the right of States Parties to determine the conditions, where appropriate, under which exhaustion of rights shall operate with regard to any products placed legitimately on the market by the patent holder or with the authorization of the patent holder. 
 

2. Members undertake to review their domestic laws within a maximum period of 5 years from entry into force of this Agreement. counted from the entry into force of this Agreement with a view to adopting at least the principle of regional exhaustion vis a vis all countries signatories to this Agreement.]
 

[ Article XX. Exhaustion of the right
 

A patent shall not confer on its owner the right to proceed against a third party making commercial use of a product protected by the patent once that product has been introduced into the commerce of any country by the owner or another person authorized by, or with economic ties to the owner of the patent.
 

For the purposes of the preceding paragraph, two persons shall be deemed to have economic ties when one of the persons is able to exercise a decisive influence on the other, either directly or indirectly, with respect to the exploitation of the patent, or when a third party is able to exert such influence over both persons. 
 

Where the patent protects biological material capable of reproduction, the patent coverage shall not extend to the biological material that is obtained by means of the reproduction, multiplication, or propagation of material that was introduced into commerce, as described in the first paragraph, provided that it was necessary to reproduce, multiply, or propagate the material in order to fulfill the purposes for which it was introduced into commerce, and that the material so obtained is not used for multiplication or propagation purposes. ]
 

[Article XX. Other Use Without Authorization of the Right Holder
 

Article 31 of the TRIPs Agreement shall apply , mutatis mutandis, to use without the right holder's authorization. ]
 

[Article XX. Other Use Without consent of the Right Holder
 

When the law of a Party allows for other use of the subject matter of a patent, different from those permitted under the previous article, without the authorization of the right holder, including use by the government or third parties authorized by the government, the following provisions shall be respected:
 

a) authorization of such use shall be considered on its individual merits;
 

b) Such use may only be permitted if, prior to such use, the proposed user has made efforts to obtain authorization from the right holder on reasonable commercial terms and conditions and that such efforts have not been successful within a reasonable period of time. This requirement may be waived by a Party in the case of a national emergency or other circumstances of extreme urgency or in cases of public non-commercial use. In situations of national emergency or other circumstances of extreme urgency, the right holder shall, nevertheless, be notified as soon as reasonably practicable. In the case of public non-commercial use, where the government or contractor, without making a patent search, knows or has demonstrable grounds to know that a valid patent is or will be used by or for the government, the right holder shall be informed promptly;
 

c) The scope and duration of such use shall be limited to the purpose for which it was authorized;
 

d) such use shall be non-exclusive;
 

e) such use shall be non-assignable, except with that part of the enterprise or goodwill which enjoys such use;
 

f) any such use shall be authorized predominantly for the supply of the domestic market of the Party authorizing such use;
 

g) authorization for such use shall be liable, subject to adequate protection of the legitimate interests of the persons so authorized, to be terminated if and when the circumstances which led to it cease to exist and are unlikely to recur. The competent authority shall have the authority to review, upon motivated request, the continued existence of these circumstances;
 

h) the right holder shall be paid adequate remuneration in the circumstances of each case, taking into account the economic value of the authorization;
 

i) the legal validity of any decision relating to the authorization of such use shall be subject to judicial review or other independent review by a distinct higher authority;
 

j) any decision relating to the remuneration provided in respect of such use shall be subject to judicial review or other independent review by a distinct higher authority;
 

k) The Parties shall not be obliged to apply the conditions set forth in subparagraphs (b) and (f) where such use is permitted to remedy a practice determined after judicial or administrative process to be anti-competitive. The need to correct anti-competitive practices may be taken into account in determining the amount of remuneration in such cases. Competent authorities shall have the authority to refuse termination of authorization if and when the conditions which led to such authorization are likely to recur; and
 

l) where such use is authorized to permit the exploitation of a patent ("the second patent") which cannot be exploited without infringing another patent ("the first patent"), the following additional conditions shall apply:
 

i) the invention claimed in the second patent shall involve an important technical advance of considerable economic significance in relation to the invention claimed in the first patent;
 

ii) the owner of the first patent shall be entitled to a cross-license on reasonable terms to use the invention claimed in the second patent; and
 

iii) the use authorized in respect of the first patent shall be non-assignable except with the assignment of the second patent. ]
 

[Article XX. Other Use Without Authorization of the Right Holder]
 

1. [Members shall have the right to determine the grounds or reasons for authorizing use, by third parties without the authorization of the right holder, that are different from the limitations and exceptions established in this chapter.]
 

2. Where the law of a Member allows for other use of the subject matter of a patent without the authorization of the right holder, including use by the government or third parties authorized by the government, the following provisions shall be respected:
 

a) authorization of such use shall be considered on its individual merits;
 

b) such use may only be permitted if, prior to such use, the proposed user has made efforts to obtain authorization from the right holder on reasonable commercial terms and conditions and that such efforts have not been successful within a reasonable period of time. This requirement may be waived by a Member in the case of a national emergency or other circumstances of extreme urgency or in cases of public non-commercial use. In situations of national emergency or other circumstances of extreme urgency, the right holder shall, nevertheless, be notified as soon as reasonably practicable. 

In the case of public non-commercial use, where the government or contractor, without making a patent search, knows or has demonstrable grounds to know that a valid patent is or will be used by or for the government, the right holder shall be informed promptly;
 

c) the scope and duration of such use shall be limited to the purpose for which it was authorized, and in the case of semi-conductor technology shall only be for public non-commercial use or to remedy a practice determined after judicial or administrative process to be anti-competitive;
 

d) such use shall be non-exclusive;
 

e) such use shall be non-assignable, except with that part of the enterprise or goodwill which enjoys such use;
 

f) any such use shall be authorized predominantly for the supply of the domestic market of the Member authorizing such use;
 

g) authorization for such use shall be liable, subject to adequate protection of the legitimate interests of the persons so authorized, to be terminated if and when the circumstances which led to it cease to exist and are unlikely to recur. The competent authority shall have the authority to review, upon motivated request, the continued existence of these circumstances;
 

h) the right holder shall be paid adequate remuneration in the circumstances of each case, taking into account the economic value of the authorization;
 

i) the legal validity of any decision relating to the authorization of such use shall be subject to judicial review or other independent review by a distinct higher authority in that Member;
 

j) any decision relating to the remuneration provided in respect of such use shall be subject to judicial review or other independent review by a distinct higher authority in that Member; 
 

k) Members are not obliged to apply the conditions set forth in subparagraphs (b) and (f) where such use is permitted to remedy a practice determined after judicial or administrative process to be anti-competitive. The need o correct anti-competitive practices may be taken into account in determining the amount of remuneration in such cases. Competent authorities shall have the authority to refuse termination of authorization if and when the conditions which led to such authorization are likely to recur;
 

l) where such use is authorized to permit the exploitation of a patent ("the second patent") which cannot be exploited without infringing another patent ("the first patent"), the following additional conditions shall apply:
 

i) the invention claimed in the second patent shall involve an important technical advance of considerable economic significance in relation to the invention claimed in the first patent;
 

ii) the owner of the first patent shall be entitled to a cross-license on reasonable terms to use the invention claimed in the second patent; and 
 

iii) the use authorized in respect of the first patent shall be non-assignable except with the assignment of the second patent. 
 

3. Each Member shall have the right to take legislative measures providing for the grant of compulsory licenses to prevent the abuses which may result from the exercise of the exclusive right to conferred by the patent , for example, failure to work.]
 

4. [A compulsory license may not be applied for on the ground of failure to work or insufficient working before the expiration of a period of four years from the date of filing of the patent application or three years from the date of the grant of the patent, whichever period expires last; it shall be refused if the patentee justifies his inaction by legitimate reasons. Such a compulsory license shall be non-exclusive and shall not be transferable, even in the form of the grant of a sub-license, except with that part of the enterprise or goodwill which exploits such license.]
 

[ Article XX: Other Uses without the Consent of the Right Holder 
 

When the national legislation of a Party authorizes other uses (10) of the patent product without the consent of the copyright holder, including the use by government or third parties authorized by government, the following provisions shall be respected: 
 

a) Authorization for said uses shall be considered according to their particular circumstances; 
 

b) Those uses will be permitted only when, before granting them, the potential user attempted to receive the copyright holder's authorization to use those rights under reasonable commercial terms and conditions, and those attempts did not have the desired effect in a reasonable period of time. The Parties may be exempted from this commitment in cases of national emergency or other circumstances of extreme urgency, or for non-commercial public use. However, in situations of national emergency or other circumstances of extreme urgency, the copyright holder shall be informed of this fact as soon as is reasonably possible. In the case of non-commercial public use, when the government or contractor, without undertaking a patent search, knows or has demonstrable reasons to believe that a valid patent is or will be used by or for a government, the copyright holder shall be informed without delay.
 

c) The scope and duration of the uses shall be limited to the purposes for which they were authorized and in the case of semi-conductor technology, they can only be used for non-commercial public use or to correct a practice declared to be contrary to competition due to an administrative or legal procedure;
 

d) The uses will be of a non-exclusive nature; 
 

e) The uses shall only be ceded with that part of the enterprise or its intangible assets that benefit from them; 
 

f) These uses shall be authorized mainly to supply the domestic market of the Party granting such uses; 
 

g) The authorization for said uses may be withdrawn on condition that the legitimate interests of the persons who have received the authorization for those uses are adequately protected, if the circumstances leading to this situation have disappeared and are not likely to reoccur. The competent authorities shall be authorized to examine if those circumstances still exist, if a previous justified request has been made; 
 

h) The copyright holder shall receive appropriate remuneration, according to the individual circumstances of each specific case, bearing in mind the economic value of the authorization; 
 

i) The legal validity of any decision relative to the authorization of these uses shall be subject to legal review or another independent review by a different higher authority from the same Party; 
 

j) Any decision referring to the established remuneration for those uses shall be subject to legal review or another independent review by a different higher authority from the same Party; 
 

k) The Parties shall not be obliged to apply the conditions set out in sections b) and f), when authorization has been granted for those uses to remedy a practice which, due to a legal or administrative procedure, has been found to be anti-competitive. The need to correct the anti-competitive practices may be considered when determining the amount of remuneration for those cases. The competent authorities shall have the power to refuse revocation of the authorization, if it is probable that the conditions, which gave rise to that situation, might reoccur; 
 

l) When the authorization for those uses has been granted to allow the exploitation of a patent ("second patent") that cannot be exploited without infringing upon another patent ("first patent"), the following additional conditions must be followed: 
 

i) The invention claimed in the second patent assumes that an important technical development of considerable economic value has been made in comparison to the invention claimed in the first patent; 
 

ii) The holder of the first patent shall have the right to a crossover license with adequate conditions to exploit the claimed invention of the second patent; and 
 

iii) The authorized use for the first patent may not be transferred without the surrender of the second patent. ]
 

[ Article XX. Other uses without consent of the right holder
 

1. On expiration of a three-year period following a patent grant, or four years following the application for a patent, whichever is longer, the competent national office may grant a compulsory license mainly for the industrial manufacture of the product covered by the patent, or for full use of the patented process, at the request of any interested party, but only if, at the time of the request, the patent had not been exploited in the manner specified in Articles 59 and 60, in the Party in which the license is sought, or if the exploitation of the invention had been suspended for more than one year.
 

2. Compulsory licenses shall not be granted if patent owners are able to give valid reasons for their failure to act, which may be reasons of force majeure or an act of God, in accordance with the domestic provisions in effect in each Party.
 

3. A compulsory license shall be granted only if, prior to applying for it, the proposed user has made efforts to obtain a contractual license from the patent holder on reasonable commercial terms and conditions and that such efforts were not successful within a reasonable period of time
 

4. Following the declaration by a Party of the existence of public interest, emergency, or national security considerations, and only for so long as those considerations exist, the patent may be subject to compulsory licensing at any time. In that case, the competent national office shall grant the licenses that are applied for. The owner of the patent so licensed shall be notified as soon as is reasonably possible.
 

5. Parties shall specify the scope or extent of the compulsory license and, in particular, the term for which it is granted, the subject matter of the license, and the amount of remuneration and the conditions for its payment.
 

6. The grant of a compulsory license for reasons of public interest shall not reduce the right of the patent owner to continue exploiting it.
 

7. Parties shall refuse termination of a compulsory license if and when the conditions that led to the granting of the license are likely to recur.
 

8. Parties shall grant a license, upon request by the owner of a patent whose exploitation necessarily requires the use of another patent, and that right holder has been unable to secure a contractual license to the other patent on reasonable commercial terms. That license shall subject to the following conditions:
 

a) the invention claimed in the second patent shall involve an important technical advance of considerable economic significance in relation to the invention claimed in the first patent;
 

b) the owner of the first patent shall be entitled to a cross-license on reasonable terms to use the invention claimed in the second patent; and,
 

c) the license authorized in respect of the first patent shall be non-assignable except with the assignment of the second patent. 
 

9. The provisions of this article shall be applied to cases covered by Title XIII of the present agreement. ]
 

[Article XX. Revocation/Forfeiture
 

An opportunity of judicial review shall be available to any decision to revoke or forfeit a patent. ]
 

[Article XX. Revocation or forfeiture
 

An opportunity for judicial review of any decision to revoke or forfeit a patent shall be available.. Each Party may revoke or cancel a patent when grounds exist that would have justified refusal to grant it. ]
 

[Article XX. Term of protection

The term of protection available shall not end before the expiration of a period of twenty years counted from the filing date. ]
 

[Article XX. Duration of protection
 

The term of protection conferred by a patent shall not end before the expiration of a period of twenty years counted from the filing date.]
 

[ Article XX. Duration of the patent on an invention
 

Patents shall be understood to be granted for a period of twenty (20) years, non-renewable, counted from the date the corresponding application was filed. ]
 

[Article XX. Process Patents: Burden of Proof 
 

1. In the case of an infringement of the rights of the owner, if the subject matter of a patent is a process for obtaining a product, the judicial authorities shall have the authority to order the defendant to prove that the process to obtain an identical product is different from the patented process. Therefore, Members shall provide, in at least one of the following circumstances, that any identical product when produced without the consent of the patent owner shall, in the absence of proof to the contrary, be deemed to have been obtained by the patented process:
 

a) if the product obtained by the patented process is new; 
 

b) if there is a substantial likelihood that the identical product was made by the process and the owner of the patent has been unable through reasonable efforts to determine the process actually used. 
 

2. Any Member shall be free to provide that the burden of proof indicated in paragraph 1 shall be on the alleged infringer only if the condition referred to in subparagraph (a) is fulfilled or only if the condition referred to in subparagraph (b) is fulfilled.
 

3. In the adduction of proof to the contrary, the legitimate interests of defendants in protecting their manufacturing and business secrets shall be taken into account. ]
 

[Article XX. Burden of proof in patented processes.
 

When the subject matter of a patent is a process for obtaining an identical product, the judicial authorities shall be empowered to order the defendant to prove that the process to obtain an identical product is different from the patented process. Therefore, each Party shall provide, at least in the following cases, that the burden of proof shall rest with the defendant to prove that the product subject to the alleged infringement was made otherwise than by the patented process:
 

a) if the product obtained by the patented process is new;
 

b) if there is a substantial likelihood that the identical product was made by the process and the owner of the patent has been unable through reasonable efforts to determine the process actually used.
 

Parties shall be free to provide that the burden of proof indicated in paragraph 1 shall be on the alleged infringer only if the condition referred to in subparagraph (a) is fulfilled or only if the condition referred to in subparagraph b) is fulfilled.
 

In the adduction of proof to the contrary, the legitimate interests of defendants in protecting their manufacturing and business secrets shall be taken into account. ]
 

[Article XX. Procedural issues]
 

1. Each Member shall establish a system for patenting inventions, which shall include at least:
 

a) measures to ensure that applications in process and annexes thereto are treated confidentially until they are published;
 

b) publication of the patent application no later than 18 months after the filing date or, where appropriate, of the earliest priority;
 

c) the option to request that patents granted in breach of the rules in force be declared null and void or be cancelled.;
 

d) the option to submit comments on behalf of third parties. 
 

2. Members shall require the applicant for a patent to disclose the invention in a sufficiently clear and complete manner that persons skilled in the relevant art may work the invention. 
 

3. Members shall require the applicant to indicate the best way of working the invention known to the inventor on the date the application is filed, or if a priority is being claimed, on the priority date claimed in the application. 
 

4. Members may require the applicant for a patent to provide information on his applications, searches and the corresponding patents granted abroad, as well as they may authorize filing by third parties of documents that may assist in the examination.
 

5. Members shall respect the principle of first to file, especially in the case of the right of priority stipulated in Article 4 of the Paris Convention (1967). Once the requirements for patentability have been met, the patent shall be granted to the first applicant whose filing has produced effects under the Paris Convention (1967).
 

6. The examination as to substance conducted by the Patent Offices of each Member State, shall determine whether the application fully satisfies the requirements for patentability in each State.]
 

[ Article XX. Procedural Issues
 

Parties shall ensure that procedures for the granting of patents are sufficiently clear, and respect the principles of due process. ]
 

[ Article XX. Conditions Imposed on Patent Applicants
 

1. The Parties shall request from the patent applicant that he disclose in a sufficiently clear and complete manner the invention so that persons trained in that technical field may carry out the invention and may demand that the applicant explain the best possible way to carry out the invention that the inventor knows of on the date of application or, if the date of priority is claimed, then on the date of priority claimed in the application.
 

2. The Parties may demand of the patent applicant that he provide information pertinent to his applications and the corresponding patent grants abroad. ]
 

[ Article XX: Patent Procedures: Burden of Proof 
 

1. For the purposes of civil proceedings concerning the infringement of the copyright holder's rights referred to in article XX (Conferred Rights) paragraph 1 b), the judicial authorities shall have the power to order the defendant to prove that the procedure to manufacture a product is different to the patented procedure when the purpose of a patent is a procedure to manufacture a product. Therefore, the Parties shall define that, except when there is proof to the contrary, any identical product manufactured by a party, without the consent of the patent holder, was produced by using the patented procedure, in at least one of the following circumstances: 
 

a) If the product manufactured by this patented procedure is new; 
 

b) If there is a substantial probability that the identical product was manufactured by the same procedure and that the patent holder cannot establish through reasonable efforts the procedure that was in actual fact used.
 

2. The Parties shall have the freedom to decide that the burden of proof mentioned in paragraph 1 would fall upon the alleged violator, if the condition stipulated in section a) is fulfilled or if the condition stipulated in section b) is fulfilled.

3. When proof to the contrary is submitted, the legitimate interests of the defendants will be taken into account when considering the protection of their industrial and trade secrets. ]
 

[Article XX. Patents 
 

1. Subject to paragraphs 2 and 5, each Party shall make patents available for any inventions, whether products or processes, in all fields of technology, provided that such inventions are new, result from an inventive step and are capable of industrial application. 
 

2. A Party may exclude from patentability inventions if preventing in its territory the commercial exploitation of the inventions is necessary to protect public order or morality, including to protect human, animal or plant life or health or to avoid serious prejudice to nature or the environment, provided that the exclusion is not based solely on the ground that the Party prohibits commercial exploitation in its territory of the subject matter of the patent. 
 

3. Subject to paragraphs 2 and 5, there shall be no discrimination in the granting of patents, nor in the enjoyment of the respective rights, with respect to the field of technology, in the territory of the country in which the invention was made or whether the products are imported or manufactured locally. 
 

4. Each Party shall provide for the protection of plant varieties through patents, an effective scheme of sui generis protection, or both.Each Party shall undertake, insofar as their systems are compatible, to respect the substantive provisions presently in force in the UPOV Convention. 
 

5. A Party may also exclude from patentability:
 

a) diagnostic, therapeutic and surgical methods for the treatment of humans or animals;
 

b) plants and animals other than microorganisms; and
 

c) essentially biological processes for the production of plants or animals, other than non-biological and microbiological processes for such production.
 

6. A patent shall confer on its owner the following exclusive rights:
 

a) where the subject matter of a patent is a product, to prevent third parties not having the owner's consent from the acts of: making, using, offering for sale, selling, or importing for these purposes that product;
 

b) where the subject matter of a patent is a process, to prevent third parties not having the owner's consent from the act of using the process, and from the acts of: using, offering for sale, selling, or importing for these purposes at least the product obtained directly by that process.
 

7. A Party may provide limited exceptions to the exclusive rights conferred by a patent, provided that such exceptions do not unreasonably conflict with a normal exploitation of the patent and do not unreasonably prejudice the legitimate interests of the patent owner, taking into account the legitimate interests of other persons.
 

8. A Party may revoke a patent only when:
 

a) grounds exist that would have justified a refusal to grant the patent; or
 

b) the grant of a compulsory license has not remedied the lack of exploitation of the patent.
 

9. Each Party shall permit patent owners to assign and transfer by succession their patents, and to conclude licensing contracts.
 

10. Where the law of a Party allows for use of the subject matter of a patent, other than that use allowed under paragraph 6, without the authorization of the right holder, including use by the government or other persons authorized by the government, the Party shall respect the following provisions:
 

a) authorization of such use shall be considered on its individual merits;
 

b) such use may only be permitted if, prior to such use, the proposed user has made efforts to obtain authorization from the right holder on reasonable commercial terms and conditions and such efforts have not been successful within a reasonable period of time. The requirement to make such efforts may be waived by a Party in the case of a national emergency or other circumstances of extreme urgency or in cases of public non-commercial use. In situations of national emergency or other circumstances of extreme urgency, the right holder shall, nevertheless, be notified as soon as reasonably practicable. In the case of public non-commercial use, where the government or contractor, without making a patent search, knows or has demonstrable grounds to know that a valid patent is or will be used by or for the government, the right holder shall be informed promptly;
 

c) the scope and duration of such use shall be limited to the purpose for which it was authorized;
 

d) such use shall be non-exclusive;
 

e) such use shall be non-assignable, except with that part of the enterprise or goodwill that enjoys such use;
 

f) any such use shall be authorized predominantly for the supply of the Party's domestic market;
 

g) authorization for such use shall be liable, subject to adequate protection of the legitimate interests of the persons so authorized, to be terminated if and when the circumstances that led to it cease to exist and are unlikely to recur. The competent authority shall have the authority to review, upon motivated request, the continued existence of these circumstances;
 

h) the right holder shall be paid adequate remuneration in the circumstances of each case, taking into account the economic value of the authorization;
 

i) the legal validity of any decision relating to the authorization shall be subject to judicial or other independent review by a distinct higher authority;
 

j) any decision relating to the remuneration provided in respect of such use shall be subject to judicial or other independent review by a distinct higher authority;
 

k) the Party shall not be obliged to apply the conditions set out in subparagraphs (b) and (f) where such use is permitted to remedy a practice determined after judicial or administrative process to be anticompetitive. The need to correct anticompetitive practices may be taken into account in determining the amount of remuneration in such cases. Competent authorities shall have the authority to refuse termination of authorization if and when the conditions that led to such authorization are likely to recur; and 
 

l) the Party shall not authorize the use of the subject matter of a patent to permit the exploitation of another patent except as a remedy for an adjudicated violation of domestic laws regarding anticompetitive practices.
 

11. Where the subject matter of a patent is a process for obtaining a product, each Party shall, in any infringement proceeding, place on the defendant the burden of establishing that the allegedly infringing product was made by a process other than the patented process in one of the following situations:
 

a) the product obtained by the patented process is new; or
 

b) a substantial likelihood exists that the allegedly infringing product was made by the process and the patent owner has been unable through reasonable efforts to determine the process actually used.
 

In the gathering and evaluation of evidence, the legitimate interests of the defendant in protecting its trade secrets shall be taken into account.
 

12. Each Party shall provide a term of protection for patents of at least 20 years from the date of filing. ]
 

[Article XX. Patents 
 

1. Each Party shall make patents available for any invention, whether a product or a process, in all fields of technology, provided that the invention is new, involves an inventive step and is capable of industrial application. For purposes of this Article, a Party may treat the terms "inventive step" and "capable of industrial application" as being synonymous with the terms "non-obvious" and "useful", respectively. Each party may exclude inventions from patentability only as defined in paragraphs 27.2 and 27.3(a) of the TRIPS Agreement. 
 

2. Each Party shall confer on a patent owner the following exclusive rights:
 

a) where the subject matter of a patent is a product, to prevent third parties not having the owner's consent from the acts of: making, using, offering for sale, selling, or importing for these purposes that product;
 

b) where the subject matter of a patent is a process, to prevent third parties not having the owner's consent from the act of using the process, and from the acts of: using, offering for sale, selling, or importing for these purposes at least the product obtained directly by that process.
 

Patent owners shall also have the right to assign, or transfer by succession, the patent and to conclude licensing contracts.
 

3. Each Party may provide limited exceptions to the exclusive rights conferred by a patent, provided that such exceptions do not unreasonably conflict with a normal exploitation of the patent and do not unreasonably prejudice the legitimate interests of the patent owner, taking account of the legitimate interests of third parties.
 

4. A Party may revoke a patent only when grounds exist that would have justified a refusal to grant the patent. Administrative proceedings provided by a Party that permit a third party to challenge a finding that a patent complies with requirements of the patent law of the Party shall be limited to grounds that would have justified a refusal of the grant of the patent. Where such proceedings include opposition proceedings, opposition proceedings shall not be made available prior to the grant of the patent.
 

5. Where a Party permits the use of a patented invention to generate information required by a regulatory authority to obtain approval to market a product, such Party shall limit such use to acts reasonably performed to generate information to demonstrate that a product is scientifically equivalent to a previously approved product, provided, however, that:
 

i) where the grant of the patent precedes the approval for marketing of the product subject to the patent, the Party shall extend the term of the patent by a period sufficient to confer a reasonable term of exclusivity;
 

ii) any product produced under this authority shall not be commercially used, sold or offered for sale in the Party or exported outside the territory of the Party except as reasonably performed for obtaining marketing approval; and
 

iii) the patent owner shall be provided notice of the identity of any entity that includes data generated under this authority in an application for marketing approval based on the previously approved product that seeks the authority to market the product prior to expiration of the patent. 
 

6. Where a Party permits use of the subject matter of a patent without the authorization of a patent owner by the Government of the Party or by a private entity acting on behalf of the Government of the Party, such authorization shall comply with the following conditions:
 

a) The authorization shall be granted only for public non-commercial purposes or in situations of a declared national emergency or other situations of extreme urgency. 
 

b) The authorization shall be limited to the making, using or importing of the patented invention solely to satisfy the requirements of the Government use, and shall not entitle a private party acting on behalf of the Government to sell products produced pursuant to such authorization to a party other than the Government, or to export the product outside the territory of the Party.
 

c) The patent owner shall be provided with reasonable and entire compensation for such use and manufacture.
 

d) Parties shall not require the patent owner to transfer undisclosed information or technical "know how" related to a patented invention that has been subjected to involuntary use authorization.
 

7. Parties shall not grant authorizations to third parties to use the subject matter of the patent without the consent of the patent owner, other than in circumstances specified in paragraph (6), unless to remedy a practice determined after judicial or administrative process to be anti-competitive under the competition law of the Party. The Parties recognize that an intellectual property right does not necessarily confer market power upon its owner.
 

8. Each Party, at the request of the patent owner, shall extend the term of a patent to compensate for unreasonable delays that occur in granting the patent. For the purposes of this paragraph, an unreasonable delay shall at least include a delay in the issuance of the patent of more than four years from the date of filing of the application in the Party, or two years after a request for examination of the application has been made, whichever is later, provided that periods of time attributable to actions of the patent applicant need not be included in the determination of such delays. 
 

9. Where a Party provides for the grant of a patent on the basis of an examination of the invention conducted in another country, that Party, at the request of the patent owner, shall extend the term of a patent granted under such procedure by a period equal to the period of the extension, if any, provided in respect of the patent granted by such other country. 
 

10. Each Party shall exclude information contained in public disclosures used to determine if an invention is novel or has an inventive step if the public disclosure was made or authorized by, or derived from, the patent applicant and occurs within 12 months prior of the date of filing of the application in the Party. 
 

Article XX. Measures Related to Certain Regulated Products 
 

1. If a Party requires the submission of information concerning the safety and efficacy of a pharmaceutical or agricultural chemical product prior to permitting the marketing of such product, such Party shall not permit third parties not having the consent of the party providing the information to market the same or a similar product on the basis of the approval granted to the party submitting such information for a period of at least five years from the date of approval. 
 

Proposed footnote to Article XX.1
 

Where a Party, on the date of its implementation of the TRIPS Agreement, had in place a system for protecting pharmaceutical or agricultural products not involving new chemical entities from unfair commercial use which conferred a period of protection shorter than that specified in paragraph 12.1, that Party may retain such system notwithstanding the obligations of said paragraph. 
 

2. If a Party provides a means of granting approval to market products specified in paragraph (1) on the basis of the grant of an approval for marketing of the same or similar product in another Party, the Party shall defer the date of any such approval to third parties not having the consent of the party providing the information in the other Party for a period of at least five years from the date of approval in the Party or the date of approval in the other Party, whichever is later. 
 

3. Where a product is subject to a system of marketing approval pursuant to paragraphs (1) or (2) and is also subject to a patent in the Party:
 

a) the Party shall not approve an application to market a product on the basis of information in an earlier marketing approval for the same product where that application has been filed by a party other than the recipient of the original marketing approval or with his consent, and shall not otherwise authorize a third party to market the same product, prior to the expiration of the patent; and
 

b) the Party shall not alter the term of protection specified in paragraphs (1) and (2) in the event that the patent expires on a date earlier than the end of the term of such protection.
 

c) In addition, if the product is subject to a patent in the Party and the other Party, the Party shall extend the term of the patent in the Party to expire no earlier than the date of expiration of the patent in the other Party.]

7) RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE PROTECTION OF TRADITIONAL KNOWLEDGE AND INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY, AS WELL AS RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ACCESS TO GENETIC RESOURCES AND INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY
 

[Article XX. Relationship between the Protection of Traditional Knowledge and Intellectual Property, as well as the Relationship between Access to Genetic Resources and Intellectual Property]
 

1. The relationship between the protection of traditional knowledge and intellectual property as well as the relationship between access to genetic resources and intellectual property shall be based on the provisions of the Convention on Biological Diversity, without prejudice to subscribing to consensuses which may be reached in the various international fora in which the subject matter is addressed and the provisions of national laws on the subject. 
 

2. Members shall grant protection to the genetic resources and traditional knowledge, jointly or separately, by means of an effective sui generis system, guaranteeing at least fair and equal remuneration for use by third parties.
 

3. Nevertheless, in recognition of the sovereign rights of States over their natural resources and traditional knowledge, the power to regulate access to such genetic resources and traditional knowledge is vested in national governments under national law.]
 

[Article XX. Relationship Between the Protection of Traditional Knowledge and Intellectual Property 
 

Each Party shall protect the collective intellectual property and traditional knowledge rights of indigenous peoples to their creations, when these can be used for commercial purposes, through a special system for registration, promotion and marketing of their rights, in order to highlight the social and cultural values of indigenous peoples and local communities and treat them equitably. 
 

Article XX
 

Each Party shall recognize that the customs, traditions, beliefs, spirituality, religiosity, worldview, expressions of folklore, artistic expressions, traditional knowledge and any other form of traditional expression of indigenous peoples and local communities are part of their cultural patrimony. 
 

Article XX
 

Cultural patrimony may not be subject to any form of exclusivity on the part of third parties not authorized through the intellectual property rights system, unless application is made by the indigenous peoples and local communities or by third parties authorized by them. 
 

Article XX
 

Each Party shall provide that any fixation, representation, publication, communication or use in any form of expressions of folklore or traditional knowledge will mention the community and indigenous people associated therewith. 
 

Relationship Between Access to Genetic Resources and Intellectual Property 
 

Article XX
 

Each Party shall protect access to its genetic resources, and traditional knowledge developed by indigenous peoples and local communities on the use of biological resources contained in such genetic resources, against the indiscriminate use of biological diversity, as well as ensuring that the country will participate in benefits derived from the use of its genetic resources. 
 

Article XX
 

Each Party shall provide for just and equitable participation in the benefits deriving from access to its genetic resources and from use of traditional knowledge and expressions of folklore. 
 

Article XX.
 

Each Party shall ensure that the protection given to industrial property is granted to safeguard its biological and genetic patrimony. For such purpose, the granting of patents on inventions developed based on material obtained from such traditional knowledge or patrimony shall be subject to such material having been acquired pursuant to national and international law. ]
 

[ Relation between the protection of traditional knowledge and intellectual property, and between access to genetic resources and intellectual property
 

Article XX
 

Parties shall ensure that the protection granted to intellectual property elements shall be accorded while safeguarding and respecting their biological and genetic heritage, together with the traditional knowledge of their indigenous, African American, or local communities.
 

Article XX
 

The granting of patents on inventions that have been developed on the basis of material obtained from the biological and genetic heritage, or from the traditional knowledge of indigenous, African American, or local communities of the Parties, shall be subordinated to the acquisition of that material in accordance with international, regional, subregional and national law.
 

Article XX
 

Parties recognize the right and the authority of indigenous, African American, and local communities in respect of their collective knowledge.
 

Article XX

Parties shall provide protection to genetic resources and traditional knowledge, either jointly or separately, through asui generis system, guaranteeing fair and equitable payment from the benefits derived from access to resources or the use of such knowledge. ]
 
 
 

8) UTILITY MODELS
 

[Article XX. Protection of Utility Models
 

Each Party shall protect utility models in accordance with their legislation, for a period of at least 10 years, counted from the filing date. ]
 

[Article XX. Utility Models
 

Each Party shall protect utility models of any form, configuration or arrangement of elements of any artifact, tool, instrument, mechanism or other object, or any part thereof, that allows improved or different functioning, use or manufacture of the object that embodies it, or endows it with some utility, advantage or technical effect which it did not previously have.
 

Utility models shall be protected by granting patents
 

Article XX. Term of protection
 

The protection conferred by a patent on a utility model shall begin from the date when the application was filed, and, when granted, shall cease fifteen (15) years after that date.
 

Article XX. Exceptions
 

The following shall not be eligible for a utility model patent:
 

a) Procedures;
 

b) Chemical, metallurgical or any other type of substance or composition; and, material excluded from protection by the patent on the invention. ]
 

[Article XX. Utility Models]
 

1. Members shall grant patents or utility model certificates to any new form, configuration or lay-out of elements of a device, tool, instrument, mechanism, or other object of part thereof, insofar as they effect a functional improvement to its use or manufacture. 
 

2. The subject matters excluded from protection under patents for invention may not be granted patents or utility model certificates. 
 

3. The provision on patents for inventions set out in this Agreement apply to utility models to the extent that they are relevant. Likewise, it shall be an essential requirement for issuance of utility model certificates or patents that the inventions envisaged in this chapter are new and industrially applicable. 
 

4. The term of protection of utility models shall be no less than 10 years from the filing date of the application.
 

5. Members may establish limitations and exceptions to the rights of utility model owners provided that such exceptions do not unreasonably conflict with a normal exploitation of the protected models and do not unreasonably prejudice the legitimate interests of the owner of the protected model, taking account of the legitimate interests of third parties.]
 

[Article XX. Utility Models 
 

1. Each Party shall protect utility models, these being understood as objects, utensils, machines and tools which, as a result of a change in their assembly, configuration, structure or form, perform a different function with respect to the parts which compose them or the advantages of their utility. 
 

2. The registration of utility models shall be in force for a period of 10 years, which cannot be extended. ]
 

[ Utility models
 

Article XX
 

Any new shape, configuration, or arrangement of components of any device, tool, implement, mechanism or other object, or any part thereof, that permits improved or different operation, use, or manufacture of the object incorporating it, or that endows it with any utility, advantage, or technical effect that it did not have previously shall be considered a utility model.

Utility models shall be protected by patents.
 

Article XX
 

The following shall not be considered utility models: sculptures, architectural works, or objects that are purely aesthetic in nature.

Processes and materials excluded from patent protection may not be the subject matter of utility model patents.
 

Article XX
 

The duration of the utility model shall be ten years, counted from the filing date of the respective application in the Party concerned
 

Article XX
 

The provisions on invention patents contained in this Agreement shall be applicable to utility model patents, as pertinent. ]
 
 
 
 
 

9) INDUSTRIAL DESIGNS
 

[Article XX. Industrial Designs
 

1. Members shall provide for the protection of independently created industrial designs that are new or original. Members may provide that designs are not new or original if they do not differ significantly from known designs or combinations of known design features. Members may provide that such protection shall not extend to designs dictated essentially by technical or functional considerations.
 

2. Each Member shall ensure that requirements for securing protection for textile designs, in particular in regard to any cost, examination or publication, do not unreasonably impair the opportunity to seek and obtain such protection. Members shall be free to meet this obligation through industrial design law or through copyright law. ]

[Article XX. Conditions and duration of protection
 

Parties shall provide for the protection of independently created industrial designs that are new or original. Parties may provide that designs are not new or original if they do not significantly differ from known designs or combinations of known design features. Parties may provide that such protection shall not extend to designs dictated essentially by technical or functional considerations.
 

Parties shall ensure that requirements for securing protection for textile designs, in particular in regard to any cost, examination or publication, do not unreasonably impair the opportunity to seek and obtain such protection. Parties shall be free to meet this obligation through industrial design law or through copyright law.
 

Each Party shall provide a period of protection for industrial designs of, at least, 10 years counted from the filing date.]
 

[Article XX. Rights conferred
 

The owner of a protected industrial design shall have the right to prevent third parties not having the owner's consent from making, selling or importing articles bearing or embodying a design which is a copy, or substantially a copy, of the protected design, when such acts are undertaken for commercial purposes.
 

Parties may provide limited exceptions to the protection of industrial designs, provided that such exceptions do not unreasonably conflict with the normal exploitation of protected industrial designs and do not unreasonably prejudice the legitimate interests of the owner of the protected design, taking account of the legitimate interests of third parties.]
 

[Article XX. Industrial designs
 

Each Party shall provide for the protection of independently created industrial designs that are new or original. Registrable designs shall be those that are original and susceptible to industrial application; "original design" means one that is not the same as another design already in the public domain, or so similar as to be confused with it.
 

Article XX. Duration of protection
 

The patent on an industrial design shall cease ten (10) years from the date on which the corresponding application was filed.
 

[Article XX. Industrial designs shall include
 

a) Industrial drawings, including any combination of figures, lines or colors incorporated into an industrial product for ornamentation purposes, which give it a special and distinctive appearance; and,
 

b) Industrial models consisting of any two- or three-dimensional shape that serves as a model or pattern for the manufacture of an industrial product, that gives it a special appearance not involving technical effects, and which have not been dictated solely by technical criteria or requirements.]
 

[Article XX. Rights conferred
 

The protection of an industrial design confers on its owner the right to prevent third parties from exploiting the industrial design. The owner shall be entitled to take action against anyone, who without the consent of the owner, manufacturers, sells, offers for sale or uses, imports or stores for any of these purposes, a product that reproduces or embodies the protected industrial design, or whose appearance gives a general impression equal to that of the protected industrial design.]
 

[Article XX. Exceptions
 

1. Such acts shall not be rendered lawful by the mere fact that the design reproduced or embodied is applied to a type or category of products other than those indicated in the registration of the protected design.
 

2. Parties may not extend the protection conferred on an industrial design to elements or characteristics of the design dictated wholly by technical criteria or for the purpose of carrying out a technical function, without any arbitrary contribution by the designer.
 

3. The protection conferred on an industrial design shall not include elements or characteristics of the design, whose exact reproduction was necessary to enable the product embodying the design to be assembled mechanically or connected to another product of which it forms part. This provision shall not be applicable to products in which the design involves a particular shape intended to allow assembly or multiple connection of products, or their connection within a modular system.
 

4. An industrial design shall not be registered whose appearance was dictated entirely by technical criteria or in order to carry out a technical function without incorporating any arbitrary contribution by the designer.
 

5. An industrial design shall not be registered that consists of a shape whose exact reproduction was necessary to enable the product embodying the design to be assembled mechanically or connected to another product of which it forms part. This provision shall not be applicable to products in which the design involves a particular shape intended to allow assembly or multiple connection of products or their connection within a modular system. ]
 

[ Article XX. Requirements for Protection
 

Parties shall provide for the protection of independently created industrial designs that are new or original. Parties may provide that designs are not new or original if they do not significantly differ from known designs or combinations of known design features. Parties may provide that such protection shall not extend to designs dictated essentially by technical or functional considerations.
 

[ Article XX. Protection 
 

1. The owner of a protected industrial design shall have the right to prevent third parties not having the owner's consent from making, selling or importing articles bearing or embodying a design which is a copy, or substantially a copy, of the protected design, when such acts are undertaken for commercial purposes. 
 

2. Members may provide limited exceptions to the protection of industrial designs, provided that such exceptions do not unreasonably conflict with the normal exploitation of protected industrial designs and do not unreasonably prejudice the legitimate interests of the owner of the protected design, taking account of the legitimate interests of third parties.
 

3. The duration of protection available shall amount to at least 10 years. ]
 

[ Article XX. Protection
 

1. The right holder of a protected industrial design shall have the right to prevent third parties not having the right holder's consent from making, selling or importing articles bearing or embodying a design which is a copy, or substantially a copy, of the protected design, when such acts are undertaken for commercial purposes. 
 

2. Parties may provide limited exceptions to the protection of industrial designs, provided that such exceptions do not unreasonably conflict with the normal exploitation of protected industrial designs and do not unreasonably prejudice the legitimate interests of the right holder of the protected design, taking into account the legitimate interests of third parties.
 

3. The term of protection available shall be at least 10 years. ]
 

[ Article XX. Industrial Designs
 

1. Members shall provide for the protection of independently created industrial designs that are new or original, exclusively ornamental in nature and suitable for industrial use. Members may provide that designs are not new or original if they do not significantly differ from known designs or combinations of known design features.
 

2. The owner of a protected industrial design shall have the right to prevent third parties not having the owner's consent from making, selling or importing articles bearing or embodying a design which is a copy, or substantially a copy, of the protected design, when such acts are undertaken for commercial purposes.
 

3. Designs that are for basically technical or functional considerations, designs that incorporate purely artistic effects and those the exploitation of which it is necessary to prevent in order to protect public order morality and decency may not be protected.
 

4. Members may provide limited exceptions to the protection of industrial designs, provided that such exceptions do not unreasonably conflict with the normal exploitation of protected industrial designs nor unreasonably prejudice the legitimate interests of the owner of the protected design, taking account of the legitimate interests of third parties. 
 

5. The duration of protection granted for the design shall be no less than 10 years from the filing of the application. Member States shall strive to provide in their laws at least a five year renewal.]
 

[ Article XX. Industrial Designs
 

1. Each Party shall provide for the protection of independently created industrial designs that are new or original. A Party may provide that:
 

a) designs are not new or original if they do not significantly differ from known designs or combinations of known design features; and 
 

b) such protection shall not extend to designs dictated essentially by technical or functional considerations.
 

2. Each Party shall ensure that the requirements for securing protection for textile designs, in particular in regard to any cost, examination or publication, do not unreasonably impair a person's opportunity to seek and obtain such protection. A Party may comply with this obligation through industrial design law or copyright law.
 

3. Each Party shall provide the owner of a protected industrial design the right to prevent other persons not having the owner's consent from making or selling articles bearing or embodying a design that is a copy, or substantially a copy, of the protected design, when such acts are undertaken for commercial purposes.
 

4. A Party may provide limited exceptions to the protection of industrial designs, provided that such exceptions do not unreasonably conflict with the normal exploitation of protected industrial designs and do not unreasonably prejudice the legitimate interests of the owner of the protected design, taking into account the legitimate interests of other persons.
 

5. Each Party shall provide a term of protection for industrial designs of at least 10 years. ]
 

[Industrial designs
 

Article XX
 

"Industrial drawing, design or model" shall be understood to mean the particular appearance of a product that results from any arrangement of lines or combination of colors, or any two-dimensional or three-dimensional outward shape, line, outline, form, texture, or material, without the intended use or purpose of the said product being thereby changed, shall be considered an industrial design.
 

Article XX
 

The right to register an industrial design pertains to the designer and may be assigned or transferred by succession. 

Registration right holders may be natural persons or legal entities. 

If several persons make an industrial design jointly, they shall share the right to its registration. 

If several persons make the same industrial design, each independently of the others, registration shall be granted to the person or assignee with the first filing date or, where priority is claimed, date of application.
 

Article XX
 

Industrial designs shall be registrable provided they are new. An industrial design shall not be considered new if, before the filing date or validly claimed priority date, it has been made accessible to the public in any place or at any time, by description, use, or any other means.

An industrial design shall not be deemed new by virtue of the mere fact that it embodies minor differences in relation to earlier creations, or that it refers to a category of products different from that to which the said creations belong.
 

Article XX
 

The following creations shall not be registrable: 
 

a) industrial designs when, the prevention of the commercial exploitation of which within the territory of the Party where registration is being applied for, is necessary to protect morality or public order. To those ends, commercial exploitation of an industrial design shall not be considered contrary to morals and public order merely by reason that the exploitation is prohibited or regulated by a legal or administrative provision;
 

b) industrial designs the appearance of which was dictated essentially by technical or functional considerations and that fail to incorporate any arbitrary contribution by the designer; and,
 

c) industrial designs that consist only of a form, the exact reproduction of was necessary to permit the mechanical assembly or connection of the product incorporating the design with another product of which it is a part. This prohibition shall not be applicable to products in which the design consists of another way to permit the assembly or the multiple connection of the product or of its connection within a modular system.
 

Article XX
 

Registration of an industrial design shall last for ten years, counted from the filing date of the respective application in the Party concerned
 

Article XX
 

Registration of an industrial design shall confer on its owner the right to prevent third parties from making use of the design concerned. By virtue of that prohibition, the owner of the registration shall be entitled to proceed against any third party who, without the consent of the right holder, manufactures, imports, offers for sale, markets, or makes commercial use of products that incorporate or reproduce the industrial design.
 

Registration shall likewise confer the right to proceed against any person who produces or markets an article whose design only presents minor differences with respect to the protected design or where appearance is the same as the latter protected design.
 

Article XX
 

The protection accorded to an industrial design shall not apply to elements or characteristics of the design, which are dictated essentially by technical or functional considerations, or which fail to incorporate any arbitrary contribution by the designer.
 

The protection accorded to an industrial design shall not apply to the exact reproduction of such elements or characteristics as may be needed to allow the product incorporating the design to be mechanically assembled or joined to another product of which it is a part. This restriction shall not apply where the design assumes a particular form to allow for the assembly or multiple connections of the products or the connection of those products within a modular system.
 

Article XX
 

Registration of an industrial design shall not confer the right to proceed against a third party who makes commercial use of a product incorporating or reproducing the design once it has been introduced into the commerce of any country by the right holders or another person authorized by them or with economic ties to those right holders.
 

For purposes of the preceding paragraph, two persons shall be considered to have economic ties when one of the persons is able to exercise a decisive influence over the other, either directly or indirectly, with respect to the exploitation of the industrial design, or when a third party is able to exert that influence over both persons.]
 

10) PLANT VARIETIES
 

[ Article XX. Plant varieties
 

1. Members shall grant protection to plant varieties, through patents, through an effective sui generis system, such as the system of the International Union for the Protection of New Varieties of Plants - UPOV, or through a combination thereof. 
 

2. For the purposes of this Agreement:
 

a) "breeder" shall mean the person that has created or discovered and developed a plant variety,
 

b) "plant variety" shall mean a set of plants from a single botanical taxon of the lowest known rank which, irrespective of whether it fully meets the conditions for the granting of breeder's rights, may 
 

i) be defined by the expression of the characteristics stemming from a certain genotype or a certain combination of genotypes,
 

ii) be distinguished from any other set of plants by the expression of at least one such characteristic,
 

iii) be considered as a unit, having regard to its ability to self propagate without alteration.
 

3. This Agreement shall apply to all botanical genera and species.
 

4. Without prejudice to the provision of the previous paragraph, any State Party which applies this Agreement to a specific genus or species shall have the power to limit the benefit of protection to nationals of other States Parties which apply the Agreement to that genus or species. 
 

5. Parties shall recognize and guarantee that the right granted to the breeder shall be tantamount to declaring the following subject to the prior authorization of the breeder:
 

a) production for commercial purposes,
 

b) sale,
 

c) marketing of the reproductive and propagating material, per se, of the plant variety.

6. Members may grant breeders, for certain botanical genera or species, a more extensive right than the one stipulated in the previous paragraph, which shall be extended to the marketed product. 
 

7. The breeder may make his authorization subject to conditions and limitations.
 

8. The breeder's authorization shall not be necessary to use the plant variety as the initial source of variation with a view to creating other varieties. The authorization to market such plant varieties shall be subject to the laws of each State Party. Likewise, such authorization shall be required when the repeated use of the plant variety becomes necessary for the commercial production of another variety.
 

9. Members may restrict the right of the breeder with the intention of allowing farmers to use the product of the harvest of the protected variety for reproductive or propagating purposes 
 

10. The right of the breeder shall be granted: 
 

a) where the plant variety is new, distinctive, homogenous, stable and designated by a name intended as its generic name; and
 

b) when the requirements stipulated in a) have been reviewed.
 

11. The plant variety must be clearly distinguishable from any other plant variety, the existence of which is well known at the time protection is sought. 
 

12. On the date the application for protection is filed with a State Party, the plant variety:
 

a) must not have been offered for sale or marketed, with the consent of the breeder, in the territory of the said State, or if so provided in the law of the State, not having been offered for sale or marketed for over a year, and 
 

b) must not have been offered for sale or marketed, in the territory of any other State, with the consent of the breeder, for a prior period of more than six years in the case of vines, forest trees, fruit trees, and ornamental trees, including in each case their root stock, or for a prior period of more than four years in the case of other plants.
 

13. Only a single plant variety may be deposited with States Parties under the same name.
 

14. The granting of the breeder's right shall not be contingent on supplementary or different criteria from those mentioned, provided that the breeder has complied with the formalities provided under the law of the State Party, with whose authority the application was filed and the appropriate fees paid. 
 

15. The right granted to the breeder shall not be for a period less than fifteen years from the deed of protection was issued. 
 

16. The duration of protection for vines, forest trees, fruit trees, and ornamental trees, including in each case, their root stock, shall not be less than eighteen years from the date mentioned in the previous paragraph. 
 

17. Members may provide limited exceptions to the rights conferred solely for reasons of public interest, provided that such exceptions do not unreasonably conflict with the normal exploitation of the plant variety or unreasonably prejudice the legitimate interests of the owner of the protected right holder, taking account of the legitimate interests of third parties. Where such a limitation is tantamount to allowing a third party to perform any of the acts for which the authorizations of the breeder is required, Members shall adopt all the measures [necessary] for the breeder to receive a fair remuneration.
 

18. The right of the breeder shall be declared null and void pursuant to the provisions of the national legislation of each State Party, if it is provided that:
 

a) the requirements set as to novelty and differentiation of the plant variety for which registration is being sought were not effectively complied with at the time the deed of protection was issued;
 

b) the right of the breeder was granted to a person that was not entitled thereto, unless it was assigned to the person in whom the right was vested.
 

19. each State Party may declare forfeiture of the right of the breeder which was granted, if it is proved that:
 

a) the requirements for homogeneity and stability were not complied with effectively;
 

b) the breeder is unable to submit to the competent authority the reproductive or propagating material that will make it possible to breed the plant varieties with its characteristics, as they were defined when protection was granted;
 

c) the breeder did not pay within the time periods specified the fees due, where applicable, for the extension of his rights;
 

20. A breeder who files applications for protection regularly in one of the States Parties, shall enjoy a right of priority for a period of twelve months in order to file in the other States Parties. This time period shall be calculated from the date the first application was filed. The period shall not include the day the application was filed. 
 

21. The right of the breeder is independent of the measures adopted by a Member to regulate in its territory, the production, control, and marketing of the materials of the plant variety, and the import and export of such material. In any event, such measures shall not prevent the enforcement of the provisions of this Agreement.]
 

[ Article XX. New Plant Varieties
 

Article XX
 

Each Party shall recognize and guarantee the right known as "breeders' rights," through a special registration system, in order to protect the rights arising from the breeding of plant varieties.
 

Article XX
 

The right granted to a breeder of a plant variety is an intellectual property right that confers on its holder an exclusive right, under which the breeder's authorization is required for certain acts involving the exploitation of the protected variety. 
 

Article XX. 
 

Breeders' rights shall be marketable, transferable and inheritable. The owner of the right may grant licensing authorities to third parties for the use of the protected varieties. 
 

Article XX.
 

Breeders' rights shall extend to all plant genera and species, and shall apply, in general, to whole plants, including any type of flower, fruit or seed, and any other part thereof that can be used as material for reproduction or propagation. Breeders' rights shall also be granted when the variety is new, distinct, uniform and stable.
 

Article XX
 

The right granted to the breeder shall be for 20 years from the date on which such protection was granted. For vines, forest trees, fruit trees and ornamental trees, including, in each case, their root-stock trees, protection shall be for 25 years. Once the period of protection has expired, the varieties shall be considered to have fallen into the public domain. ]
 

[ Plant Varieties
 

Article XX
 

The parties shall recognize and guarantee protection of the rights of breeders of new plant varieties.
 

The parties shall encourage research activities and technology transfer related to the obtaining of new plant varieties.
 

Article XX
 

The scope of application of this agreement shall cover any botanical genus or species, provided that their cultivation, possession or use are not prohibited for reasons of human, animal or plant health.
 

Article XX
 

For purposes of the present Agreement, the following definitions shall apply:
 

LIVE SAMPLE: the sample of the variety provided by the applicant a plant breeder certificate, which will be used to carry out tests of novelty, distinctiveness, uniformity and stability.
 

VARIETY: set of cultivated botanical items that are distinguished by certain morphological, physiological, cytological or chemical characteristics that can be perpetuated by reproduction, multiplication or propagation.
 

ESSENTIALLY DERIVED VARIETY: a variety shall be deemed to be essentially derived from an initial variety when it is predominantly derived from the initial variety, or from a variety that is itself predominantly derived from the initial variety, while retaining the expression of the essential characteristics that result from the genotype or combination of genotypes of the initial variety, but which is still is clearly distinguishable from the initial variety, conforming to the initial variety in the expression of the essential characteristics that result from the genotype or combination of genotypes of the initial variety, except for the differences which result from the act of derivation.
 

MATERIAL: material deriving from plant reproduction or multiplication in any form; harvested product, including whole plants and parts thereof; and any product made indirectly from the proceeds of the harvest.
 

Article XX
 

Parties shall grant breeders certificates to the creator of a plant variety, provided it is new, uniform, distinct and stable, and that it has been given a denomination which will be its generic designation.

For purposes of this Agreement, "creation" shall mean the breeding of a new variety by the application of scientific knowledge to an inheritable plant improvement.
 

Article XX
 

A variety shall be deemed to be new, or novel, if the material of reproduction or multiplication, or harvested product, has not been sold or otherwise disposed of to third parties, by or with the consent of the breeder or his assignee, for the purpose of commercially exploiting the variety.
 

Novelty shall be deemed to have been lost when:
 

a) Exploitation has begun at least one year before the date of filing the application for a breeder's certificate, or validly claimed priority date, if sale or disposal took place within the territory of any Party; 
 

b) Exploitation has begun at least four years before, or in the case of trees or vines, earlier than six years before the date of filing the application for a breeders certificate, or validly claimed priority date, if sale or disposal took place in the territory other than that of Party.
 

Article XX
 

Novelty shall not be deemed to have been lost by the sale or disposal to third parties, among other things, when such acts are:
 

a) the result of an abuse which injures the interest of the breeder or his assignee;
 

b) part of an agreement to transfer the right on the variety, provided this has not been physically transferred to a third party;
 

c) part of an agreement under which a third party increases, on behalf of the breeder, stocks of the material of reproduction or multiplication;
 

d) part of an agreement under which a third party undertakes field or laboratory testing, or small-scale processing tests in order to evaluate the variety; or when
 

e) relate to harvested material obtained as a byproduct or surplus of the variety or from the activities mentioned in subparagraphs (c) and (d) of this article; or,
 

f) carried out by any other unlawful means.
 

Article XX
 

The variety shall be deemed to be distinct if it is clearly distinguishable from any other variety whose existence is a matter of common knowledge at the time of the filing of the application, or validly claimed priority date.

In particular, the filing of an application for the granting of a breeder's certificate or for the entering of another variety in an official register of varieties, in any country, shall be deemed to render that other variety a matter of common knowledge from the date of the application, provided that the application leads to the granting of a breeder's right or to the entering of the said other variety in the official register of varieties, as the case may be.
 

A variety shall be deemed to be uniform if, subject to the variation that may be expected from the particular features of its reproduction, multiplication or propagation, it is sufficiently uniform in its relevant characteristics.
 

The variety shall be deemed to be stable if its essential characteristics remain unchanged from generation to generation, and at the end of each particular cycle of reproduction, multiplication or propagation. 
 

Article XX
 

Each Party shall ensure that no rights pertaining to the designation registered as the denomination of the variety shall hamper the free use of the denomination in connection with the variety, even after expiration of the breeder's certificate.
 

Article XX
 

Breeder's certificates shall be granted for a period of between 20 and 25 years in the case of vines, forest trees, and fruit trees including grafts, and between 15 and 20 years for other species, counted from the grant date, as determined by the competent national authority.
 

Article XX
 

The holder of the rights on a registered variety shall be obliged to maintain it and replace it, as appropriate, throughout the period for which the breeder's certificate is valid.
 

Article XX
 

The granting of the breeder's certificate shall confer on its holder the right to prevent third parties, without his consent, from carrying out the following acts with respect to the material of reproduction, propagation or multiplication of the protected variety:
 

a) production, reproduction, multiplication or propagation;
 

b) preparation for the purposes of reproduction, multiplication or propagation;
 

c) offering for sale;
 

d) selling or any other act that implies introduction into the market for commercial purposes, of the material of reproduction, propagation or multiplication;
 

e) export;
 

f) import;
 

g) stocking for any of the purposes mentioned in the preceding paragraphs;
 

h) Commercial use of ornamental plants, or parts thereof, as multiplication material for the purpose of producing ornamental or fruit bearing plants or parts thereof, or cut flowers;
 

i) the acts referred to in the previous paragraphs in respect of harvested material, including entire plants and parts thereof, obtained through the unauthorized use of material of reproduction or multiplication of the protected variety shall require authorization from the breeder, unless the breeder has had reasonable opportunity to exercise his right in relation to the said material of reproduction or multiplication.
 

The breeder's certificate shall also confer on its holder the rights established in the preceding paragraphs with respect to varieties that are not clearly distinguished from the protected variety, as defined in Article XX of the present Agreement, and with regard to varieties whose production would require repeated use of the protected variety.
 

The competent national authority may confer on the right holder, the right to prevent third parties from performing, without his consent, the acts indicated in the previous paragraphs, with respect to varieties that are essentially derived from the protected variety, unless this itself is an essentially derived variety.
 

Article XX
 

A breeder's right shall not confer on its holder the right to prevent third parties from using the protected variety when this is done:
 

a) privately, for non-commercial purposes;
 

b) for experimental purposes; and
 

c) for the purpose of breeding and exploiting a new variety, except in the case of a variety essentially derived from a protected variety. Any such new variety may be registered in the name of its breeder.
 

Article XX
 

A breeder's right shall not been infringed by a person who stocks and plants for their own use, or for sale as raw material or food, the product obtained from growing the protected variety. Commercial use of the material of multiplication, reproduction or propagation, including whole plants and parts thereof, of fruit bearing, ornamental and forest species, is excluded from this article.
 

Article XX
 

A breeder's right may not be exercised in respect of acts indicated in Article XX of the present Agreement, when the material of the protected variety has been sold or otherwise marketed by or with the consent of the holder of the right, except where such acts imply:
 

a) a new reproduction, multiplication or propagation of the protected variety, subject to the restriction established in Article XX of the present Agreement;
 

b) export of the material of the protected variety, such as to permit its reproduction, to a country that does not provide protection to varieties of the plant species to which the exported variety belongs, except where such material is destined for human, animal or industrial consumption.
 

Article XX
 

Where necessary, the Parties may adopt measures in their territory to regulate or control the production, commercialization, import or export of the material of reproduction or multiplication of the variety, provided such measures do not imply non-recognition of any breeder's rights recognized by the present Agreement, nor hinder the exercise thereof.
 

Article XX
 

The holder of a breeder's certificate may grant licenses to exploit the variety.
 

Article XX
 

In order to ensure adequate exploitation of the protected variety, in exceptional cases of national security or public interest, Parties may declare it to be freely available, subject to equitable payment being made to the breeder.
 

Parties shall determine the amount of any such payment, having heard arguments from the interested parties and expert opinion, based on the extent of the exploitation of the licensed variety. ]
 

11) UNDISCLOSED INFORMATION
 

[Article XX. Trade secrets
 

1. In the course of ensuring effective protection against unfair competition as provided in Article 10bis of the Paris Convention (1967), Members shall protect undisclosed information in accordance with paragraph 2 and data submitted to governments or governmental agencies in accordance with paragraph 3.
 

2. Natural and legal persons shall have the possibility of preventing information lawfully within their control from being disclosed to, acquired by, or used by others without their consent in a manner contrary to honest commercial practices so long as such information:
 

a) is secret in the sense that it is not, as a body or in the precise configuration and assembly of its components, generally known among or readily accessible to persons within the circles that normally deal with the kind of information in question; 
 

b) has commercial value because it is secret; and 
 

c) has been subject to reasonable steps under the circumstances, by the person lawfully in control of the information, to keep it secret. 
 

3. Members, when requiring, as a condition of approving the marketing of pharmaceutical or of agricultural chemical products which utilize new chemical entities, the submission of undisclosed test or other data, the origination of which involves a considerable effort, shall protect such data against unfair commercial use. In addition, Members shall protect such data against disclosure, except where necessary to protect the public, or unless steps are taken to ensure that the data are protected against unfair commercial use.]
 

[Article XX. Protection of undisclosed information
 

In the course of ensuring effective protection against unfair competition, Parties shall protect undisclosed information in accordance with paragraph 2 and data submitted to governments or governmental agencies in accordance with the following article.
 

Natural and legal persons shall have the possibility of preventing information lawfully within their control from being disclosed to, acquired by, or used by others without their consent in a manner contrary to honest commercial practices so long as such information:
 

a) is secret in the sense that it is not, as a body or in the precise configuration and assembly of its components, generally known among or readily accessible to persons within the circles that normally deal with the kind of information in question;
 

b) has commercial value because it is secret; and
 

c) has been subject to reasonable steps under the circumstances, by the person lawfully in control of the information, to keep it secret.
 

To grant such protection, each Party may require that the industrial secret consist of documents, electronic or magnetic media, optical disks, microfilm, films or other similar instruments.
 

No Party may limit the duration of protection for industrial or trade secrets, so long as the conditions described in paragraph 2 persist
 

No Party shall discourage or impede the voluntary licensing of industrial or trade secrets, by imposing excessive or discriminatory conditions that dilute their value.
 

Article XX. Protection of data relating to pharmaceutical or agrochemical goods
 

Each Party, when requiring, as a condition of approving the marketing of pharmaceutical or of agricultural chemical products which utilize new chemical entities, the submission of undisclosed test or other data, the origination of which involves a considerable effort, shall protect such data against unfair commercial use. In addition, Parties shall protect such data against disclosure, except where necessary to protect the public, or unless steps are taken to ensure that the data are protected against unfair commercial use. ]
 

[Article XX. Protection
 

The Parties shall grant protection to industrial or trade secrets, with these being defined as any undisclosed information that a natural or legal person may possess, that could be used in any productive, industrial or commercial activity and which is transmissible to a third party.
 

The Parties shall recognize an industrial secret as protectable when the information comprising it was not, either as a body or in the precise configuration and assembly of its components, generally known among or readily accessible to persons within the circles that normally deal with the kind of information in question, and has been subject to reasonable steps, by the person lawfully in control of the information, to keep it secret.
 

Article XX.
 

Each Party shall grant the legitimate holder of an industrial secret the power to file suit to prevent or halt the following acts in particular, without prejudice to any action that may be applicable for damages:
 

1. Make use of an industrial secret, to which access has been obtained in confidence as a result of a contractual or employment relation, without the consent of the owner or legitimate holder;
 

2. Communicate or disclose the industrial secret referred to in subparagraph 1 above, without authorization from its legitimate holder, for the purpose of personal benefit, or benefit to a third party, or in order to injure the lawful holder;
 

3. Acquire the industrial secret by unlawful or unfair means, or when it was known or should have been known that the person who communicated the secret, acquired it by such means, or was not authorized by the legitimate holder to communicate it;
 

4. Exploit, communicate or disclose the industrial secret if it has been acquired by the means or under the conditions referred to in subparagraph 3 above. ]
 

[Article XX. Undisclosed information]
 

1. In the course of ensuring effective protection against unfair competition as provided in Article 10bis of the Paris Convention (1967), Members shall protect undisclosed information in accordance with paragraph 2 and data submitted to governments or governmental agencies in accordance with paragraph 3.
 

2. Natural and legal persons shall have the possibility of preventing information lawfully within their control from being disclosed to, acquired by, or used by others without their consent in a manner contrary to honest commercial practices 10 so long as such information:
 

a) is secret in the sense that it is not, as a body or in the precise configuration and assembly of its components, generally known among or readily accessible to persons within the circles that normally deal with the kind of information in question;
 

b) has commercial value because it is secret; and
 

c) has been subject to reasonable steps under the circumstances, by the person lawfully in control of the information, to keep it secret.
 

3. Members, when requiring, as a condition of approving the marketing of pharmaceutical or of agricultural chemical products which utilize new chemical entities, the submission of undisclosed test or other data, the origination of which involves a considerable effort, shall protect such data against unfair commercial use. In addition, Members shall protect such data against disclosure, except where necessary to protect the public, or unless steps are taken to ensure that the data are protected against unfair commercial use.]
 

[Article XX. Protection of Undisclosed Information 
 

1. In the course of ensuring effective protection against unfair competition as provided in Article 10bis of the Paris Convention (1967), Parties shall protect undisclosed information in accordance with paragraph 2 and data submitted to governments or governmental agencies in accordance with paragraph 3.
 

2. Natural and legal persons shall have the possibility of preventing information lawfully within their control from being disclosed to, acquired by, or used by others without their consent in a manner contrary to honest commercial practices so long as such information:
 

a) is secret in the sense that it is not, as a body or in the precise configuration and assembly of its components, generally known among or readily accessible to persons within the circles that normally deal with the kind of information in question; 
 

b) has commercial value because it is secret; and 
 

c) has been subject to reasonable steps under the circumstances, by the person lawfully in control of the information, to keep it secret. ]
 

[Article XX. Protection of Undisclosed Information 
 

1. The Parties shall grant protection to industrial or trade secrets, with the understanding that such secrets are those that incorporate industrial or trade information that, maintained as confidential, enables a person to obtain or maintain a competitive advantage vis-à-vis third parties in carrying out economic activities.
 

2. Each Party shall ensure that the holder of an industrial or trade secret has the legal means to keep these secrets from being disclosed, acquired or used by third parties without the consent of the person who has legal control of the information, contrary to fair trade practices, such as breach of contract, abuse of trust, instigation to violation and the acquisition of undisclosed information by third parties who knew or did not know by negligence, that the acquisition implied such practices, to the extend that:
 

a) the information is secret in the sense that it is not, as a body or in the precise configuration and assembly of its components, generally known among or readily accessible to persons within the circles that normally deal with the kind of information in question; 
 

b) has commercial value because it is secret; and 
 

c) has been subject to reasonable steps under the circumstances, by the person lawfully in control of the information, to keep it secret.
 

3. In order to grant protection, each Party may require that an industrial or trade secret include documents, electronic or magnetic means, optic disks, microfilms, films or other similar instruments. 
 

4. No Party may limit the term of the protection for industrial or trade secrets while the conditions described in subparagraphs a), b) and c) of paragraph 2 exist.
 

5. No Party shall discourage or hinder voluntary licensing of industrial or trade secrets by imposing excessive or discriminatory conditions on such licenses, nor conditions that detract from the value of the industrial or trade secrets.
 

6. If, as a condition of approving the marketing of pharmaceutical goods or of agricultural chemical products which utilize new chemical components, a Party requires the submission of data on experiments or of another type of data that have not been published and that are necessary to determine the security and effectiveness of the use of such goods, that Party shall protect such data presented by the persons, when the generation of such data implies a considerable effort, except when the publication is necessary to protect the public or unless steps are taken to ensure that the data are protected against all unfair commercial use. ]
 

[ Undisclosed information
 

An industrial secret shall be considered to be any undisclosed information within the lawful control of an individual person or legal entity that may be used for any productive, industrial, or commercial activity and that is capable of being transmitted to a third party, so long as that information:
 

a) is secret in the sense that it is not, as a body or in the precise configuration and assembly of its components, generally known among or readily accessible to persons within the circles that normally deal with the kind of information in question;
 

b) has commercial value because it is secret; and
 

c) has been the subject of reasonable steps by the person lawfully in control of the information, to keep it secret.
 

The information constituting an industrial secret may be related to the nature, characteristics, or purpose of the products, production methods or processes, or the means or forms of distribution or marketing of goods or rendering of services. ]
 

12) UNFAIR COMPETITION
 

[Article XX. 
 

The Parties shall deem as unfair competition the following acts, which, as such, shall be prohibited:
 

1. Any act carried out in the course of commercial activity or motivated thereby, which is contrary to the rules of good faith or to honest commercial practices and procedures;
 

2. Acts of any type that are liable to create confusion with respect to the establishment, products, services or activities of another trader;
 

3. The use or propagation of false indications or allegations liable to damage or undermine the prestige of the establishment, products, services or activities of another trader;
 

4. Use or dissemination, by a person or legal entity, of indications or allegations of any kind that are likely to create confusion with regard to the source, nature, mode of manufacture, characteristics, suitability for use or consumption, maintenance or quantity of products or services, either their own or those of a third party.
 

5. Direct or immediate use of a product placed on the market by a third party, to mold, trace or copy, or in any other way unlawfully reproduce that product by some technical means, so as to take "free-rider" advantage of the efforts of a third party for commercial purposes; and
 

6. Access to an industrial secret or other undisclosed information, or the use or disclosure of such secret or information, without the consent of its lawful holder. ]
 

[Article XX. Unfair competition]
 

1. Members are bound to assure to nationals of other Members effective protection against unfair competition.
 

2. Any act of competition contrary to the honest practices in industrial or commercial matters constitutes an act of unfair competition.. Breach of contract, fraud breach of trust, and incitement to infringe.
 

3. The following in particular shall be prohibited:
 

a) all acts of such a nature as to create confusion, by any means whatever with the establishment, the goods or the industrial or commercial activities of a competitor;
 

b) false allegations in the course of trade, of such a nature as to discredit the establishment of, the goods of the industrial or commercial activities of a competitor;
 

c) indications or allegations the use of which in the course of trade, could mislead the public as to the nature, the manufacturing process, the characteristics, the suitability for their purpose, or the quantity of the goods;
 

4. Members undertake to establish administrative and judicial, penal and civil remedies to prevent or punish acts considered unfair competition. ]
 

[ Unfair competition
 

Any act in relation to industrial property carried out in the business domain that is contrary to honest practices shall be deemed to be an act of unfair competition.
 

The following acts of competition in relation to industrial property, among others, constitute acts of unfair competition:
 

a) any act of such a nature as to create confusion, by any means whatever, with the establishment, the goods, or the industrial or commercial activities, of a competitor;
 

b) false allegations in the course of trade of such a nature as to discredit the establishment, the goods, or the industrial or commercial activities, of a competitor; or
 

c) indications or allegations the use of which in the course of trade is liable to mislead the public as to the nature, the manufacturing process, the characteristics, the suitability for their purpose, or the quantity, of the goods.]
 

13) ANTI-COMPETITIVE PRACTICES IN CONTRACTUAL LICENCES
 

[Article XX. Anti-competitive practices in contractual licences
 

1. Members agree that some licensing practices or conditions pertaining to intellectual property rights which restrain competition may have adverse effects on trade and may impede the transfer and dissemination of technology.
 

2. Nothing in this Agreement shall prevent Members from specifying in their legislation licensing practices or conditions that may in particular cases constitute an abuse of intellectual property rights having an adverse effect on competition in the relevant market. As provided above, a Member may adopt, consistently with the other provisions of this Agreement, appropriate measures to prevent or control such practices, which may include for example exclusive grantback conditions, conditions preventing challenges to validity and coercive package licensing, in the light of the relevant laws and regulations of that Member.
 

3. Each Member shall enter, upon request, into consultations with any other Member which has cause to believe that an intellectual property right owner that is a national or domiciliary of the Member to which the request for consultations has been addressed is undertaking practices in violation of the requesting Member's laws and regulations on the subject matter of this Section, and which wishes to secure compliance with such legislation, without prejudice to any action under the law and to the full freedom of an ultimate decision of either Member. The Member addressed shall accord full and sympathetic consideration to, and shall afford adequate opportunity for, consultations with the requesting Member, and shall cooperate through supply of publicly available non-confidential information of relevance to the matter in question and of other information available to the Member, subject to domestic law and to the conclusion of mutually satisfactory agreements concerning the safeguarding of its confidentiality by the requesting Member.
 

4. A Member whose nationals or domiciliaries are subject to proceedings in another Member concerning alleged violation of that other Member's laws and regulations on the subject matter of this Section shall, upon request, be granted an opportunity for consultations by the other Member under the same conditions as those foreseen in paragraph 3. ]
 

[Article XX. Anti-competitive practices in contractual licences ]
 

1. Members agree that some licensing practices or conditions pertaining to intellectual property rights which restrain competition may have adverse effects on trade and may impede the transfer and dissemination of technology. Members shall take steps to prevent such practices and licensing conditions for intellectual property rights. 
 

2. Nothing in this Chapter shall prevent Members from specifying in their legislation licensing practices or conditions that may in particular cases constitute an abuse of intellectual property rights having an adverse effect on competition in the relevant market. As provided above, a Member may adopt, consistently with the other provisions of this Chapter, appropriate measures to prevent or control such practices, which may include for example exclusive .grantback conditions preventing challenges to validity and coercive package licensing in the light of the relevant laws and regulations of that Member. The measures provided to prevent such practices shall be consistent with the other provisions of this Agreement.]
 

[ Control of anti-competitive practices in the contractual licensing of patents
 

Any Party, either ex officio or at the petition of an interested party, and subject to prior ruling by the competent national authority on free competition, shall grant compulsory licenses on patents representing practices contrary to free competition, in particular, when they constitute an abuse of dominant market position by the holder of the corresponding industrial property rights. 
 

In such cases, in order to determine the amount of the corresponding payment, account shall be taken of the need to correct said anti-competitive practices. ]
 
 
 

III. ENFORCEMENT
 

[Article XX. Obligations on enforcement
 

Each Party shall ensure that its legislation establishes procedures for enforcing intellectual property rights, in accordance with the provisions of the TRIPS Agreement, such as to permit effective action against any act of infringement of intellectual property rights covered by this chapter, including expeditious remedies to prevent infringements and remedies to deter further infringements. These procedures shall be applied in such a manner as to avoid the creation of barriers to legitimate trade and to provide for safeguards against their abuse.
 

This chapter shall not be construed as imposing any obligation to install a judicial system for enforcing intellectual property rights other than what exists for the general application of the law, nor does it affect the capacity of the Parties to generally enforce their laws. No provision herein shall be construed as creating an obligation as to the distribution of resources between those destined for enforcing intellectual property rights and those destined for enforcing the law generally. ]
 

[Article XX. General Provisions
 

Each Party shall ensure that its internal laws contain procedures for the defense of intellectual property rights, such as to permit effective action against any act of infringement of intellectual property rights covered by this chapter, including expeditious remedies to prevent infringements and remedies to deter further infringements. These procedures shall be applied in such a manner as to avoid the creation of barriers to legitimate trade and to provide for safeguards against their abuse.
 

Each Party shall ensure that decisions relating to the merits of a case in administrative and judicial proceedings in defense of intellectual property rights shall:
 

a) Preferably be in writing and set out the reasons on which they are based;
 

b) Be made available at least to the Parties to the proceeding without undue delay; and
 

c) Be based only on evidence in respect of which Parties were offered the opportunity to be heard. ]
 

[Article XX. General Obligations
 

1. Each Party shall establish under its law intellectual property rights enforcement procedures as specified in articlesxx to xx of this Agreement and the provisions of the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) These procedures shall include measures to enable the prevention and deterrence of infringements of intellectual property rights. 
 

2. This chapter does not create any obligation to put in place a judicial system for the enforcement of intellectual property rights distinct from that for the enforcement of law in general, nor does it affect the capacity of Members to enforce their law in general. Nothing in this chapter creates any obligation with respect to the distribution of resources as between enforcement of intellectual property rights and the enforcement of law in general. 
 

3. Procedures concerning the enforcement of intellectual property rights shall be fair and equitable. They shall not be unnecessarily complicated or costly and should be completed within the time periods set for that purpose in the laws of each State Party. The procedures thus stipulated shall be applied in such a manner as to avoid the creation of barriers to legitimate trade and to provide for safeguards against their abuse. 
 

4. Decisions on the merits of a case shall be made in writing and be duly justified. They shall be based on evidence presented in conformity with the rules of due process. 
 

5. In any procedure concerning the enforcement of intellectual property rights, the parties shall always have the right to revision of administrative decisions by a judicial authority or to another independent review by a different higher authority from the same Party. ]
 

[ Article XX. General Provisions 
 

1. Each Party shall ensure that enforcement procedures, as specified in this Article and Articles xx through xx, are available under its domestic law so as to permit effective action to be taken against any act of infringement of intellectual property rights covered by this Chapter, including expeditious remedies to prevent infringements and remedies to deter further infringements. Such enforcement procedures shall be applied so as to avoid the creation of barriers to legitimate trade and to provide for safeguards against abuse of the procedures.

2. Each Party shall ensure that its procedures for the enforcement of intellectual property rights are fair and equitable, are not unnecessarily complicated or costly, and do not entail unreasonable time-limits or unwarranted delays.
 

3. Each Party shall provide that decisions on the merits of a case in judicial and administrative enforcement proceedings shall:
 

a) preferably be in writing and preferably state the reasons on which the decisions are based;
 

b) be made available at least to the parties in a proceeding without undue delay; and
 

c) be based only on evidence in respect of which such parties were offered the opportunity to be heard.
 

4. Each Party shall ensure that parties in a proceeding have an opportunity to have final administrative decisions reviewed by a judicial authority of that Party and, subject to jurisdictional provisions in its domestic laws concerning the importance of a case, to have reviewed at least the legal aspects of initial judicial decisions on the merits of a case. Notwithstanding the above, no Party shall be required to provide for judicial review of acquittals in criminal cases.
 

5. Nothing in this Article and in Articles xx through xx shall require a Party to establish a judicial system for the enforcement of intellectual property rights distinct from that Party's system for the enforcement of laws in general.
 

6. For the purposes of Articles xx through xx, the term "right holder" includes federations and associations having legal standing to assert such rights.
 

[ Article XX. General Provisions
 

1. Each Party shall guarantee that their national legislation shall establish a procedure for the respect of intellectual property rights, as set out in articles XX (Specific Procedural Aspects and Administrative Procedural Support) to XX (Border Protection of Intellectual Property Rights), that allow for the adoption of effective measures against any infringement of intellectual property rights referred to in this chapter, including rapid remedies to prevent violations and that are a true deterrent to any new violations. These procedures shall be applied in such a way as not to create barriers to legitimate trade and also establish safeguard measures against its abuse.
 

2. The procedures referring to the compliance of intellectual property rights shall be just and fair. These procedures shall not be unnecessarily complicated or economically burdensome, nor shall they have unjust deadlines or undue delays.
 

3. Decisions made on the substance of the case shall be expressed in writing and contain the reasons on which they are based. At the very least, those decisions shall be made available to the parties in the dispute, without undue delay, and shall solely be based on evidence, upon which the parties have had an opportunity to be heard. 
 

4. An opportunity shall be provided to the disputing parties to have a review by a judicial authority of all the final administrative decisions and, at least, the legal aspects of all the judicial determinations made at trial court on the substance of the case, subject to the provisions of jurisdictional competency of the national laws in relation to the importance of the case. However, it will not be mandatory to provide them with the opportunity to review not guilty verdicts in criminal cases.
 

5. It is understood that the application of intellectual property rights imposes no commitment to set up a judicial system to observe different intellectual property rights to the existing ones for the application of legislation in general. Similarly, no commitment is made for the allocation of resources between those targeted for the respect of intellectual property rights and those for the respect of laws in general. ]
 

[Article XX. Procedural and Remedial Aspects of Civil and Administrative Procedures
 

1. Each Party shall make available to right holders civil judicial procedures for the enforcement of any intellectual property right provided in this Chapter. Each Party shall provide that:
 

a) defendants have the right to written notice that is timely and contains sufficient detail, including the basis of the claims;
 

b) parties in a proceeding are allowed to be represented by independent legal counsel;
 

c) the procedures do not include imposition of overly burdensome requirements concerning mandatory personal appearances;
 

d) all parties in a proceeding are duly entitled to substantiate their claims and to present relevant evidence; and
 

e) the procedures include a means to identify and protect confidential information.
 

2. Each Party shall provide that its judicial authorities shall have the authority:
 

a) where a party in a proceeding has presented reasonably available evidence sufficient to support its claims and has specified evidence relevant to the substantiation of its claims that is within the control of the opposing party, to order the opposing party to produce such evidence, subject in appropriate cases to conditions that ensure the protection of confidential information;
 

b) where a party in a proceeding voluntarily and without good reason refuses access to, or otherwise does not provide relevant evidence under that party's control within a reasonable period, or significantly impedes a proceeding relating to an enforcement action, to make preliminary and final determinations, affirmative or negative, on the basis of the evidence presented, including the complaint or the allegation presented by the party adversely affected by the denial of access to evidence, subject to providing the parties an opportunity to be heard on the allegations or evidence;
 

c) to order a party in a proceeding to desist from an infringement, including to prevent the date of entry into the channels of commerce in their jurisdiction of imported goods that involve the infringement of an intellectual property right, which order shall be enforceable at least immediately after customs clearance of such goods;
 

d) to order the infringer of an intellectual property right to pay the right holder damages adequate to compensate for the injury the right holder has suffered because of the infringement where the infringer knew or had reasonable grounds to know that it was engaged in an infringing activity;
 

e) to order an infringer of an intellectual property right to pay the right holder's expenses, which may include appropriate attorney's fees; and
 

f) to order a party in a proceeding at whose request measures were taken and who has abused enforcement procedures to provide adequate compensation to any party wrongfully enjoined or restrained in the proceeding for the injury suffered because of such abuse and to pay that party's expenses, which may include appropriate attorney's fees.
 

3. With respect to the authority referred to in subparagraph 2(c), no Party shall be obliged to provide such authority in respect of protected subject matter that is acquired or ordered by a person before that person knew or had reasonable grounds to know that dealing in that subject matter would entail the infringement of an intellectual property right.
 

4. With respect to the authority referred to in subparagraph 2(d), a Party may, at least with respect to copyrighted works and sound recordings, authorize the judicial authorities to order recovery of profits or payment of pre-established damages, or both, even where the infringer did not know or had no reasonable

grounds to know that it was engaged in an infringing activity.
 

5. Each Party shall provide that, in order to create an effective deterrent to infringement, its judicial authorities shall have the authority to order that:
 

a) goods that they have found to be infringing be, without compensation of any sort, disposed of outside the channels of commerce in such a manner as to avoid any injury caused to the right holder, or, unless this would be contrary to existing constitutional requirements, destroyed; and
 

b) materials and implements the predominant use of which has been in the creation of the infringing goods be, without compensation of any sort, disposed of outside the channels of commerce in such a manner as to

minimize the risks of further infringements.
 

In considering whether to issue such an order, judicial authorities shall take into account the need for proportionality between the seriousness of the infringement and the remedies ordered as well as the interests of other persons. In regard to counterfeit goods, the simple removal of the trademark unlawfully affixed shall not be sufficient, other than in exceptional cases, to permit release of the goods into the channels of commerce.
 

6. In respect of the administration of any law pertaining to the protection or enforcement of intellectual property rights, each Party shall only exempt both public authorities and officials from liability to appropriate remedial measures where actions are taken or intended in good faith in the course of the administration of such laws.
 

7. Notwithstanding the other provisions of Articles xx through xx, where a Party is sued with respect to an infringement of an intellectual property right as a result of its use of that right or use on its behalf, that Party may limit the remedies available against it to the payment to the right holder of adequate remuneration in the circumstances of each case, taking into account the economic value of the use. 
 

8. Each Party shall provide that, where a civil remedy can be ordered as a result of administrative procedures on the merits of a case, such procedures shall conform to principles equivalent in substance to those set out in this Article.
 

[Article XX. Specific Procedural Aspects and Recourse to Civil and Administrative Procedures
 

1. Each Party shall make available to the copyright holders the civil judicial procedures to defend any and all intellectual property rights included in this chapter and provide that: 
 

a) The defendants have the right to receive a timely notice in writing that states in sufficient detail the basis of the complaint; 
 

b) The parties in the procedure are permitted to be represented by an independent lawyer; 
 

c) The procedures do not impose excessive demands for mandatory personal court appearances; 
 

d) All the parties in the procedure are entitled to substantiate their claims and to submit pertinent evidence; and 
 

e) The procedures have the means to identify and protect information of a confidential nature. 
 

6. Each Party shall provide that their judicial authorities have the authority to:
 

a) Order that, when a party to a procedure has submitted sufficient evidence, which it could reasonably have access to, as a basis to its allegations, and has identified some pertinent evidence to substantiate its allegations that are in the hands of the opposing party, the latter shall provide that evidence, subject to, alternatively, the conditions that guarantee the protection of confidential information; 
 

b) To decide preliminary or final determinations, whether they be negative or positive, in case that one of the parties in the procedure, voluntarily and without good cause, obstructs access to evidence or does not provide pertinent evidence that is in his control within a reasonable amount of time or seriously obstructs the defense of an intellectual property rights procedure. Those determinations shall be decided on the basis of the submitted evidence, including the claim or the allegations submitted by the party that adversely affects the refusal to have access to the evidence, on condition that the parties are granted the opportunity to be heard in respect to the allegations and evidence;
 

c) Order the violator of an intellectual property right to pay the copyright holder of the right an appropriate reimbursement as compensation for the damages that the copyright holder has suffered as a result of the violation, when the violator knew that he was involved in an infringing activity or had good reason to believe it;
 

d) Order the violator of an intellectual property right to cover the costs of the copyright holder, which could include appropriate lawyer's fees; and 
 

e) Order one party to the procedure, on whose request the measures would have been adopted and who abused the defense procedure that provide for adequate compensation to any party wrongly subjected or restricted in the proceedings, in respect to damages suffered, due to that abuse, and to pay the expenses of that party, which may include appropriate lawyer's fees.
 

3. In reference to the authority in sub-paragraph d) paragraph 2, each Party may, in so far as work protected by copyright and records are concerned, grant the judicial authorities the authority to order the recovery of profits or the payment of previously determined damages or both, even when the violator was not aware that he was involved in an illicit activity or did not have good reason to believe it.
 

4. Each Party shall provide that, to effectively deter violations, their judicial authorities have the authority to:
 

a) Not compensate, in any way, the goods that have been determined to be in violation of the intellectual property rights; withdraw them from the markets in such a way as to create no injury to the copyright holder, or destroy them if it is not in contravention of the constitutional provisions in force; and 
 

b) Not compensate the materials and equipment predominantly used in the manufacture of the goods that were in violation; withdraw them from the markets in such a way as to minimize future violations.
 

5. When considering the issuance of orders referred to in paragraph 4, the judicial authorities of each Party shall take into account the proportionality between the severity of the violation and the ordered measures, as well as the interests of other persons, including the copyright holder. In so far as the counterfeit goods are concerned, the simple removal of the illicitly placed trademark shall not suffice for customs clearance of those goods, except in rare circumstances such as those where the authority decides that they are a donation to charitable organizations.
 

6. Without prejudice to what is provided in articles XX (General Provisions) to XX (Border Protection for Intellectual Property Rights), a Party being sued for the violation of an intellectual property right, as the result of the use of that right by the Party or on its behalf, may establish as the only recourse available against it, the payment of adequate compensation to the copyright holder, in accordance with the circumstances of the case, and bearing in mind the economic value of its use.
 

7. Each Party shall provide that those procedures shall be adjusted to the principles that are essentially equivalent to those stated in this article, when civil redress can be ordered as a result of administrative procedures on the substance of the matter. ]
 

[ Article XX. Provisional Measures
 

1. The judicial authorities shall be empowered to adopt provisional measures they deem appropriate or to undertake certain proceedings in advance in order to avoid the occasioning of serious injury or difficult relief to a Party, in order to preserve the pertinent evidence or to secure provisionally a decision on the merits of the case. ]
 

[ Article XX. Provisional Measures
 

1. Each Party shall provide that its judicial authorities shall have the authority to order prompt and effective provisional measures:
 

a) to prevent an infringement of any intellectual property right, and in particular to prevent the date of entry into the channels of commerce in their jurisdiction of allegedly infringing goods, including measures to prevent the entry of imported goods at least immediately after customs clearance; and
 

b) to preserve relevant evidence in regard to the alleged infringement.
 

2. Each Party shall provide that its judicial authorities shall have the authority to require any applicant for provisional measures to provide to the judicial authorities any evidence reasonably available to that applicant that the judicial authorities consider necessary to enable them to determine with a sufficient degree of certainty whether:
 

a) the applicant is the right holder;
 

b) the applicant's right is being infringed or such infringement is imminent; and
 

c) any delay in the issuance of such measures is likely to cause irreparable harm to the right holder, or there is a demonstrable risk of evidence being destroyed.
 

Each Party shall provide that its judicial authorities shall have the authority to require the applicant to provide a security or equivalent assurance sufficient to protect the interests of the defendant and to prevent abuse.
 

3. Each Party shall provide that its competent authorities shall have the authority to require an applicant for provisional measures to provide other information necessary for the identification of the relevant goods by the authority that will execute the provisional measures.
 

4. Each Party shall provide that its judicial authorities shall have the authority to order provisional measures on an ex parte basis, in particular where any delay is likely to cause irreparable harm to the right holder, or where there is a demonstrable risk of evidence being destroyed.
 

5. Each Party shall provide that where provisional measures are adopted by that Party's judicial authorities on an ex parte basis:
 

a) a person affected shall be given notice of those measures without delay but in any event no later than immediately after the execution of the measures;
 

b) a defendant shall, upon request, have those measures reviewed by that Party's judicial authorities, for the purpose of deciding, within a reasonable period after notice of those measures is given, whether the measures shall be modified, revoked or confirmed, and shall be given an opportunity to be heard in the review proceedings.
 

6. Without prejudice to paragraph 5, each Party shall provide that, upon the request of the defendant, the Party's judicial authorities shall revoke or otherwise cease to apply the provisional measures taken on the basis of paragraphs 1 and 4 if proceedings leading to a decision on the merits are not initiated:
 

a) within a reasonable period as determined by the judicial authority ordering the measures where the Party's domestic law so permits; or
 

b) in the absence of such a determination, within a period of no more than 20 working days or 31 calendar days, whichever is longer.
 

7. Each Party shall provide that, where the provisional measures are revoked or where they lapse due to any act or omission by the applicant, or where the judicial authorities subsequently find that there has been no infringement or threat of infringement of an intellectual property right, the judicial authorities shall have the authority to order the applicant, on request of the defendant, to provide the defendant appropriate compensation for any injury caused by these measures.
 

8. Each Party shall provide that, where a provisional measure can be ordered as a result of administrative procedures, such procedures shall conform to principles equivalent in substance to those set out in this Article.
 

[ Article XX. Provisional Measures
 

1. Each Party shall provide that their judicial authorities have the authority to order rapid and effective precautionary measures to:
 

a) Avoid the infringement of any intellectual property right and, in particular, avoid the introduction of goods that are the subject of the alleged infringement in trade within its jurisdiction, including measures to avoid, at least, the entry of imported goods immediately after customs clearance; and 
 

b) Safeguard pertinent evidence dealing with the alleged violation. 
 

3. Each Party shall provide that its judicial authorities have the authority to order the applicant requesting precautionary measures to submit any evidence that it may have reasonable access to, and that those authorities deem necessary to determine, with a sufficient level of certitude that: 
 

a) The applicant is the copyright holder; 
 

b) The applicant's right is being infringed, or that infringement is imminent; and 
 

c) Any delay in the issuance of those measures would probably lead to irreparable injury to the copyright holder or that there is a demonstrable risk that the evidence will be destroyed.
 

4. For the purposes of paragraph 2, each Party shall provide that its judicial authorities have the authority to order the applicant to deposit a bond or equivalent guarantee to sufficiently cover the interests of the defendant and to avoid abuses. 
 

5. Each Party shall provide that its competent authorities have the authority to order an applicant requesting precautionary measures to supply any information deemed necessary for the identification of the subject goods by the authority that applies the precautionary measures.
 

6. Each Party shall provide that its judicial authorities have the authority to order precautionary measures without hearing the opposing party, in particular, where there is a probability that any delay may cause irreparable injury to the copyright holder or where there is a demonstrable risk that the evidence may be destroyed.
 

7. Each Party, when precautionary measures are adopted by the judicial authorities of that Party without hearing the opposing party, shall provide that: 
 

a) The injured person be notified of those measures, without delay or, at the very least, immediately after the implementation of the measures; and 
 

b) The defendant, based on his own request, is granted a judicial review of the measures by the judicial authorities of that Party, so as to decide, within a reasonable time after notification of those measures, if they shall be modified, revoked or confirmed.
 

3. Without prejudice to what is set out in paragraph 6, each Party shall provide that, upon the request of the defendant, his judicial authorities shall revoke or somehow not enforce the precautionary measures taken in accordance with paragraphs 1 to 5, and if the proceedings leading to a determination on the substance of the matter are not initiated:
 

a) Within a reasonable period of time determined by the judicial authority ordering the measures, when the legislation of that Party so authorizes; or 
 

b) In the absence of that determination, within a period of time not exceeding 20 working days or 31 calendar days, whichever is the longest.

4. Each Party shall provide that when the precautionary measures are revoked, when they expire by the action or neglect of the applicant or the judicial authority determines, a posteriori, that there was no infringement, threat of infringement of an intellectual property right, the judicial authorities have the authority to order the applicant, upon request of the defendant, to provide him with appropriate compensation for whatever injury these measures may have had.
 

5. Each Party shall provide that, when a precautionary measure may be ordered as a result of administrative procedures, those procedures must be in accordance with the principles that are essentially equivalent, as stated in this article. ]
 

[ Article XX. Criminal Procedures and Penalties
 

1. The States Parties shall provide for criminal procedures to be applied at least in cases of willful trademark counterfeiting or copyright piracy on a commercial scale. Measures available shall include imprisonment and/or monetary fines sufficient to provide a deterrent, consistently with the level of penalties applied on the basis of the seriousness of the offences at issue. The penalties to be applied shall include seizure, forfeiture and destruction of the infringing goods and of any materials and implements used for the commission of the offence. The States Parties may provide for criminal procedures and penalties to be applied in other cases of infringement of intellectual property rights, in particular where they are committed willfully and on a commercial scale. ]
 

[ Article XX. Criminal Procedures and Penalties 
 

1. Each Party shall provide criminal procedures and penalties to be applied at least in cases of willful trademark counterfeiting or copyright piracy on a commercial scale. Each Party shall provide that penalties available include imprisonment or monetary fines, or both, sufficient to provide a deterrent, consistent with the level of penalties applied for crimes of a corresponding gravity.
 

2. Each Party shall provide that, in appropriate cases, its judicial authorities may order the seizure, forfeiture and destruction of infringing goods and of any materials and implements the predominant use of which has been in the commission of the offense.
 

3. A Party may provide criminal procedures and penalties to be applied in cases of infringement of intellectual property rights, other than those in paragraph 1, where they are committed willfully and on a commercial scale. 
 

[ Article XX. Procedures and Criminal Penalties
 

1. Each Party shall establish procedures and criminal penalties to be applied, at least, to cases of fraudulent forging of trademarks or to copies protected by trade copyright. Each Party shall provide that the applicable penalties include imprisonment or fines, or both, that are a sufficient deterrent and are consistent with the level of sanctions applied to crimes of comparable severity.
 

2. Each Party shall provide that its judicial authorities may order the seizure and destruction of the offending goods and any of the materials and equipment predominantly used in the perpetration of the illicit act.

3. For the purposes of paragraph 2, the judicial authorities shall bear in mind, when considering the issuance of those orders, the proportionality between the severity of the infringement and the measures ordered, as well as the interests of other persons, including those of the copyright holder. In so far as the fraudulent goods are concerned, the simple removal of the attached illicit trademark shall not suffice for customs clearance of the goods, save in exceptional circumstances such as those where the authority disposes of them as a donation to charitable organizations.
 

4. Each Party may provide the application of procedures and criminal penalties for intellectual property rights infringements different to those referred to in paragraph 1, when they are committed fraudulently and at a commercial level. ]
 

[ Article XX. Enforcement of Intellectual Property Rights at the Border
 

1. Each Party shall, in conformity with this Article, adopt procedures to enable a right holder, who has valid grounds for suspecting that the importation of counterfeit trademark goods or pirated copyright goods may take place, to lodge an application in writing with its competent authorities, whether administrative or judicial, for the suspension by the customs administration of the release of such goods into free circulation. No Party shall be obligated to apply such procedures to goods in transit. A Party may permit such an application to be made in respect of goods that involve other infringements of intellectual property rights, provided that the requirements of this Article are met. A Party may also provide for corresponding procedures concerning the suspension by the customs administration of the release of infringing goods destined for exportation from its territory. 
 

2. Each Party shall require any applicant who initiates procedures under paragraph 1 to provide adequate evidence:
 

a) to satisfy that Party's competent authorities that, under the domestic laws of the country of importation, 

there is prima facie an infringement of its intellectual property right; and
 

b) to supply a sufficiently detailed description of the goods to make them readily recognizable by the customs administration.

The competent authorities shall inform the applicant within a reasonable period whether they have accepted the application and, if so, the period for which the customs administration will take action.
 

3. Each Party shall provide that its competent authorities shall have the authority to require an applicant under paragraph 1 to provide a security or equivalent assurance sufficient to protect the defendant and the competent authorities and to prevent abuse. Such security or equivalent assurance shall not unreasonably deter recourse to these procedures.
 

4. Each Party shall provide that, where pursuant to an application under procedures adopted pursuant to this Article, its customs administration suspends the release of goods involving industrial designs, patents, integrated circuits or trade secrets into free circulation on the basis of a decision other than by a judicial or other independent authority, and the period provided for in paragraphs 6 through 8 has expired without

the granting of provisional relief by the duly empowered authority, and provided that all other conditions for importation have been complied with, the owner, importer, or consignee of such goods shall be entitled to their release on the posting of a security in an amount sufficient to protect the right holder against any infringement. Payment of such security shall not prejudice any other remedy available to the right holder, it being understood that the security shall be released if the right holder fails to pursue its right of action within a reasonable period of time.
 

5. Each Party shall provide that its customs administration shall promptly notify the importer and the applicant when the customs administration suspends the release of goods pursuant to paragraph 1.
 

6. Each Party shall provide that its customs administration shall release goods from suspension if within a period not exceeding ten working days after the applicant under paragraph 1 has been served notice of the suspension, the customs administration has not been informed that:
 

a) a party other than the defendant has initiated proceedings leading to a decision on the merits of the

case, or
 

b) a competent authority has taken provisional measures prolonging the suspension, provided that all other conditions for importation or exportation have been met. Each Party shall provide that, in appropriate cases, the customs administration may extend the suspension by another 10 working days.
 

7. Each Party shall provide that if proceedings leading to a decision on the merits of the case have been initiated, a review, including a right to be heard, shall take place on request of the defendant with a view to deciding, within a reasonable period, whether the measures shall be modified, revoked or confirmed. 
 

8. Notwithstanding paragraphs 6 and 7, where the suspension of the release of goods is carried out or continued in accordance with a provisional judicial measure, the provisions of Article xx(6) shall apply.
 

9. Each Party shall provide that its competent authorities shall have the authority to order the applicant under paragraph 1 to pay the importer, the consignee and the owner of the goods appropriate compensation for any injury caused to them through the wrongful detention of goods or through the detention of goods released pursuant to paragraph 6.
 

10. Without prejudice to the protection of confidential information, each Party shall provide that its competent authorities shall have the authority to give the right holder sufficient opportunity to have any goods detained by the customs administration inspected in order to substantiate its claims. Each Party shall also provide that its competent authorities have the authority to give the importer an equivalent opportunity to

have any such goods inspected. Where the competent authorities have made a positive determination on the merits of a case, a Party may provide the competent authorities the authority to inform the right holder of the names and addresses of the consignor, the importer and the consignee, and of the quantity of the goods in question.
 

11. Where a Party requires its competent authorities to act upon their own initiative and to suspend the release of goods in respect of which they have acquired prima facie evidence that an intellectual property right is being infringed:
 

a) the competent authorities may at any time seek from the right holder any information that may assist them to exercise these powers;
 

b) the importer and the right holder shall be promptly notified of the suspension by the Party's competent authorities, and where the importer lodges an appeal against the suspension with competent authorities, the suspension shall be subject to the conditions, with such modifications as are necessary, set out in paragraphs 6 through 8; and 
 

c) the Party shall only exempt both public authorities and officials from liability to appropriate remedial measures where actions are taken or intended in good faith.
 

12. Without prejudice to other rights of action open to the right holder and subject to the defendant's right to seek judicial review, each Party shall provide that its competent authorities shall have the authority to order the destruction or disposal of infringing goods in accordance with the principles set out in Article 26(5). 
 

In regard to counterfeit goods, the authorities shall not allow the re-exportation of the infringing goods in an unaltered state or subject them to a different customs procedure, other than in exceptional circumstances.
 

13. A Party may exclude from the application of paragraphs 1 through 12 small quantities of goods of a non-commercial nature contained in travelers' personal luggage or sent in small consignments that are not repetitive. ]
 

[ Article XX. Border Protection of Intellectual Property Rights
 

1. Each Party shall adopt, in compliance with this article, the procedures that enable the copyright holder, who has valid reason to suspect the importing of fraudulent or pirated goods related to his trademarks or copyright, to submit a request in writing to the competent authorities, whether they be administrative or judicial, so that the customs authority suspend the free circulation of those goods. Neither Party shall be obliged to apply those procedures to goods in transit. Each Party may authorize the presentation of such a request for goods involving other intellectual property rights infringements as long as the conditions of this article are respected. Each Party may also establish similar procedures for the suspension of customs clearance by the customs authorities for the goods to be exported from its territory.
 

2. Each Party shall provide that its competent authorities have the authority to order any applicant initiating a procedure, in accordance with paragraph 1, to submit sufficient evidence to:
 

a) Convince the competent authorities of the importing country to ascertain that an intellectual property rights infringement has occurred according to their national legislation; and 
 

b) Provide a sufficiently detailed description of the goods so that the customs authorities can easily recognize them.
 

3. Each Party shall provide that its competent authorities convey to the plaintiff, within a reasonable period of time, if they have accepted the request and the period of time for procedural action by the customs authorities, when it is so established by the competent authorities.
 

4. Each Party shall provide that its competent authorities have the authority to order an applicant, in accordance with paragraph 1, to submit a bond or equivalent guarantee of a sufficient nature to cover the defendant and the competent authorities and to prevent abuses. That bond or equivalent guarantee should not deter, unduly, the applicant from having recourse to those procedures.
 

5. Each Party shall provide that the owner, importer or consignee of the goods that involve industrial or trade secrets, has the right to request customs clearance for those goods if a bond or equivalent guarantee, for an adequate amount to protect the copyright holder against any violation, has been previously deposited, provided that: 
 

a) As a result of a request submitted in accordance with the procedures stated in this article, the customs authorities have suspended the clearance for the free circulation of those goods, based on a determination not issued by a judicial authority or by another independent authority;
 

b) The period of time stipulated in paragraphs 8, 9, 10 and 11 has expired without the competent authority having issued a temporary suspension measure; and 
 

c) The other importation conditions have been fulfilled. 
 

4. It is understood that the bond or guarantee payment referred to in paragraph 5 will be without prejudice to any other recourse that is available to the copyright holder, and will be returned to the copyright holder if he does not exercise his legal right within a reasonable period of time.
 

5. Each Party shall provide that its competent authority notify, promptly, the importer and the applicant of the suspension of customs clearance for the subject goods, in accordance with paragraph 1.
 

6. Each Party shall provide that its customs authority clear the goods on condition that all the remaining conditions for the importing or exporting of said goods have been fulfilled. If in a period of time not exceeding ten working days commencing on the day when the applicant has been informed by a notice of suspension, the customs authorities have not been informed that:
 

a) A party, that is not the defendant, has initiated the procedure leading to the issuance of a determination on the substance of the matter; or 
 

b) The pertinent competent authority has, in fact, adopted provisional measures that extend the suspension for customs clearance of the goods. 
 

3. For the purposes of paragraph 8, each Party shall provide that their customs authorities have the authority to postpone, in the cases where they are taking action, the suspension of customs clearance for the goods for a further ten working days.
 

4. If the procedure for obtaining a determination on the substance of the matter has been initiated, upon the request of the defendant, a review will be set up in a reasonable period of time. That review shall include the defendant's right to be heard so as to decide whether those measures should be modified, revoked or confirmed.
 

5. Without prejudice to what is set out in paragraphs 8, 9 and 10, when the customs clearance suspension comes into effect or is extended in compliance with a precautionary judicial measure, the provisions of paragraph 7 of article XX shall apply (Precautionary Measures).
 

6. Each Party shall provide that its competent authorities have the authority to order an applicant, in accordance with paragraph 1, to pay the importer, consignee and the owner of the goods, an appropriate compensation for whatever injury they have suffered through the undue withholding of the goods or the withholding of the goods that have been cleared in accordance with the provisions of paragraphs 8 and 9.
 

7. Without prejudice to the protection of confidential information, each Party shall provide that its competent authorities have the authority to grant:
 

a) Sufficient opportunity to the copyright holder to have any goods withheld by the customs authorities inspected for the purposes of substantiating his claim; and 
 

b) An equal opportunity to the importer to have his goods inspected.

3. When the competent authorities have issued a favorable determination on the substance of the matter, each Party may grant to those authorities the right to provide to the copyright holder the names and addresses of the consignor, importer and consignee, as well as the quantity of the goods in question.
 

4. When a Party calls on its competent authorities to act on their own initiative and suspend customs clearance of the goods for which they have evidence that, a priori, they are presumably infringing upon an intellectual property right:
 

a) The competent authorities may require, at any time, from the copyright holder any information that may assist them in the fulfillment of their duties; 
 

b) The competent authorities of the Party shall inform the importer and the copyright holder of the suspension, promptly. When an importer requests a review of the suspension before the competent authorities, that suspension shall be subject to, with all the conducive modifications, the provisions of paragraphs 8, 9, 10 and 11; and
 

c) The Party shall only absolve the authorities and civil servants of the responsibility of issuing appropriate corrective measures by considering them to be enforced acts or shows of good faith.
 

4. Without prejudice to all the other actions that the copyright holder has and the reservation of the defendant's right to request a review before a competent judicial authority, each Party shall provide that its competent authorities have the authority to order the destruction or disposal of the infringing subject goods, in accordance with the principles set out in paragraphs 5 and 6 of article XX (Specific Procedural Aspects and Recourse to Civil and Administrative Procedures). In so far as the fraudulent goods are concerned, the authorities shall not allow, save in exceptional circumstances, that they be re-exported in the same state nor submitted to a different customs procedure.
 

5. Each Party may exclude from the application of paragraphs 1 to 16, small quantities of goods of a non-commercial nature and that are part of the personal belongings of travelers or that are sent in small non-repetitive consignments. ]
 

[Article XX. Protection of Existing Subject Matter 
 

1. This Agreement does not give rise to obligations in respect of acts that occurred before the date of application of the relevant provisions of this Agreement for the Party in question.
 

2. Except as otherwise provided for in this Agreement, each Party shall apply this Agreement to all subject matter existing on the date of application of the relevant provisions of this Agreement for the Party in question, and which is protected in a Party on the said date, or which meets or comes subsequently to meet the criteria for protection under the terms of this Chapter. In respect of this paragraph and paragraphs 3 and 4, a Party's obligations with respect to existing works shall be solely determined under Article 18 of the Berne Convention and with respect to the rights of producers of sound recordings in existing sound recordings shall be determined solely under Article 18 of that Convention, as made applicable under this Agreement. 
 

3. Except as required under paragraph 2, a Party shall not be required to restore protection to subject matter that, on the date of application of the relevant provisions of this Agreement for the Party in question, has fallen into the public domain in its territory.
 

4. Any acts in respect of specific objects embodying protected subject matter which become infringing under the terms of legislation in conformity with this Agreement, and which were commenced or in respect of which a significant investment was made, before the date of ratification of this Agreement by that Party, any Party may provide for a limitation of the remedies available to the right holder as to the continued performance of such acts after the date of application of the Agreement for that Party. In such cases, the Party shall, however, at least provide for payment of equitable remuneration.
 

5. No Party shall be obliged to apply the provisions of Article xx(2)(d) or Article xx(1)(d) with respect to originals or copies purchased prior to the date of application of the relevant provisions of this Agreement for that Party.
 

6. In the case of intellectual property rights for which protection is conditional upon registration, applications for protection that are pending on the date of application of the relevant provisions of this Agreement for the Party in question shall be permitted to be amended to claim any enhanced protection provided under the provisions of this Agreement. Such amendments shall not include new matter. ]
 

[ Article XX. Application
 

The Parties shall confirm the rights and obligations in force between them, with regard to enforcement procedures, pursuant to the provisions of the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS), set forth in Annex 1C of the Agreement Establishing the World Trade Organization. 
 

[Article XX Enforcement of Intellectual Property Rights 
 

Each Party shall establish effective administrative, civil and criminal procedures in its legislation, in order to provide appropriate protection of intellectual property rights. All such procedures shall take into account due process with respect to the applicant and the defendant. ]
 

[Article XX Border Measures
 

1. The States Parties shall, adopt procedures (11) to enable a right holder, who has valid grounds for suspecting that the importation of counterfeit trademark or pirated copyright goods may take place, to lodge an application in writing with competent authorities, administrative or judicial, for the suspension by the customs authorities of the release into free circulation of such goods. The Parties may enable such an application to be made in respect of goods which involve other infringements of intellectual property rights, provided that the requirements of this Section are met. The Parties may also provide for corresponding procedures concerning the suspension by the customs authorities of the release of infringing goods destined for exportation from their territories. ]
 

[Article XX Border Measures 

Each Party shall adopt legislation on border measures, in order to provide customs authorities the power to inspect or hold goods for the purpose of suspending their shipment or preventing their free circulation, where, in the judgment of the competent authorities, there is convincing evidence of possible violations of intellectual property rights. ]
 

[Article XX Transparency Regarding Intellectual Property 

The Parties shall provide notification of laws, regulations and provisions regarding this matter to the FTAA's Committee on Intellectual Property. Final judicial decisions and administrative rulings of general application shall be published or shall be made available to the public in a manner that allows governments and rights holders to have prima facie knowledge thereof. 
 

[Article XX Committee on Intellectual Property 

The Committee on Intellectual Property shall be comprised, in an equitable manner, of representatives of each Party. The primary function of the Committee shall be to find the most appropriate means of applying and coordinating the provisions set forth in this chapter. ]
 

[Article XX: Enforcement of Intellectual Property Rights
 

1. Decisions on the merits of a case which under the domestic laws or practices of the Party are given general applicability shall be in writing and shall state the reasons on which decisions are based..
 

2. Each Party shall ensure that all laws, regulations, procedures and practices governing the protection or enforcement of intellectual property rights, and all final judicial decisions and administrative rulings of general applicability pertaining to the enforcement of such rights, shall be in writing and shall be published, in a national language in such a manner as to enable governments and right holders to become acquainted with them and so that the system for protecting and enforcing intellectual property rights shall become transparent.
 

3. Each Party shall make available to the general public information regarding its efforts to provide effective enforcement of intellectual property rights in its civil, administrative and criminal system, including any statistical information that each Party may collect for such purposes. 
 

4. It is understood that decisions made by Parties on the distribution of enforcement resources shall not excuse a Party from complying with the provisions of this Agreement.
 

5. Parties shall make available to right holders (12) civil judicial procedures concerning the enforcement of any intellectual property right covered by this Agreement. Such rights include the prohibition against the unauthorized circumvention of technological measures and harm to the integrity of rights management information set forth in Article 10 of this Agreement. Redress for violations of these prohibitions shall include all of the relief required to be granted for copyright infringement under this Article, including, without limitation, the right to provisional measures and adequate compensation for the harm caused to the author or right holder by such unauthorized circumvention or harm to the integrity of rights management information.
 

6. Notwithstanding the other provisions of this Article and provided that the provisions of Article XX specifically addressing use by governments, or by third parties authorized by a government, without the authorization of the right holder are complied with, Parties may limit the remedies available against such use to payment of remuneration in accordance with Article XX governing compulsory licenses for patented inventions. In other cases, the remedies under this Article shall apply or, where these remedies are inconsistent with a Party's law, declaratory judgments and adequate compensation shall be available
 

7. In civil judicial proceedings, the judicial authorities shall have the authority to order the infringer to pay the right holder damages adequate to compensate for the injury the right holder has suffered because of an infringement of that person's intellectual property right by an infringer engaged in infringing activity, as well as the profits of the infringer that are attributable to the infringement and are not taken into account in computing the actual damages. Injury to the right holder shall be based upon the value of the infringed-upon item or service, or other equivalent measure for valuing authorized goods or services.
 

8. In civil judicial proceedings, Parties shall, at least with respect to works protected by copyright or neighboring rights, or in cases of trademark counterfeiting, establish or maintain in place pre-established damages upon the election of the rightholder. Such pre-established damages must be in an amount sufficiently high enough to deter future infringement and to compensate the right holder for the harm caused by the infringement. 
 

9. In no event shall a right holder who has been successful in establishing infringement be required to pay court costs or extraordinary costs based on the actions or failure to act of a third party.
 

10. In civil judicial proceedings, at the right holder's request, goods that have been found to be pirated or counterfeit shall be destroyed, except in exceptional cases The judicial authorities shall also have the authority to order that materials and implements the predominant use of which has been in the creation of the infringing goods be, without compensation of any sort, promptly destroyed or, in exceptional cases, without compensation of any sort, be disposed of outside the channels of commerce in such a manner as to minimize the risks of further infringements. In regard to counterfeit trademarked goods, the simple removal of the trademark unlawfully affixed shall not be sufficient to permit the release of goods into the channels of commerce. 
 

11. Each Party shall provide that a civil judicial proceeding regarding the infringement of any intellectual property right covered in this Agreement may be instituted by the right holder or its exclusive licensee in its respective territory.(13)


 

12. In civil judicial proceedings, the judicial authorities shall have the authority to order the infringer to identify third parties that are involved in any violation of the intellectual property right and to provide this information to the right holder. Judicial authorities shall have the authority to fine or imprison in appropriate cases persons who fail to abide by valid orders issued by such authorities
 

13. In civil cases involving copyright or related rights, each Party shall provide that the natural person or legal entity whose name is indicated as the author, producer, performer, or publisher of the work, performance or phonogram in the usual manner, shall, in the absence of proof to the contrary, be presumed to be the designated right holder in such work, performance or phonogram. It shall be presumed, in the absence of proof to the contrary, that the copyright or related right subsists in such subject matter. Such presumptions shall pertain in criminal cases until the defendant comes forward with credible evidence putting in issue the ownership or subsistence of the copyright or related right.
 

14. Requests for relief inaudita altera parte shall be acted upon and executed within ten days, except in exceptional circumstances.
 

15. The judicial authorities shall have the authority to require the applicant to provide any reasonably available evidence in order to satisfy themselves with a sufficient degree of certainty that the applicant is the right holder and that the applicant's right is being infringed or that such infringement is imminent, and to order the applicant to provide a reasonable security or equivalent assurance set at a level so as not to unreasonably deter recourse to such procedures.. In the event that judicial or other authorities appoint experts, technical or otherwise, that must be paid by the plaintiffs, such costs shall be closely related to the quantity of work to be performed and shall not unreasonably deter recourse to such relief.
 

16. Any right holder initiating procedures for suspension by the customs authorities of the release of suspected counterfeit trademark or pirated copyright goods (14)

    (b)    "pirated copyright goods" shall mean any goods which are copies made without the consent of the right holder or person duly authorized by the right holder in the country of production and which are made directly or indirectly from an article where the making of that copy would have constituted an infringement of a copyright or a related right under the law of the country of importation. into free circulation shall be required to provide adequate evidence to satisfy the competent authorities that, under the laws of the country of importation, there is prima facie an infringement of the right holder's intellectual property right and to supply sufficient information that may reasonably be expected to be within the right holder's knowledge to make the suspected goods reasonably recognizable by the customs authorities..
 

17. The competent authorities shall have the authority to require an applicant to provide a reasonable security or equivalent assurance sufficient to protect the defendant and the competent authorities and to prevent abuse. Such security or equivalent assurance shall not unreasonably deter recourse to these procedures.
 

18. Where the competent authorities have made a determination that goods are counterfeit or pirateda Party shall grant the competent authorities the authority toinform the right holder of the names and addresses of the consignor, the importer and the consignee, and of the quantity of the goods in question. 
 

19. Each party shall provide that the competent authorities may initiate border measures ex officio, without the need for a formal complaint from a private party or right holder. 
 

20. Goods that have been found to be pirated or counterfeit by the competent authorities shall be destroyed, except in exceptional cases. In regard to counterfeit trademark goods, the simple removal of the trademark unlawfully affixed shall not be sufficient to permit the release of goods into the channels of commerce. In no event shall the competent authorities be allowed to export counterfeit or pirated goods.
 

21. Parties shall provide criminal procedures and penalties to be applied at least in cases of willful trademark counterfeiting or infringement of copyrights or neighboring rights on a commercial scale. Each Party shall provide that significant willful infringements of copyrights or neighboring rights which have no direct or indirect motivation of financial gain shall be considered willful infringement on a commercial scale.
 

22. In criminal procedures, remedies available shall include imprisonment and/or monetary fines sufficiently high to deter future acts of infringement and with a policy to remove the monetary incentive to the infringer. Parties shall further ensure that such fines are imposed by judicial authorities at levels that actually deter future infringements. Each Party shall provide that its judicial authorities shall order the seizure, of suspected infringing goods and of any related materials and implements the predominant use of which has been in the commission of the offense, and documentary evidence, even where such product is not specifically named in a search warrant.. Each Party shall further provide that its judicial authorities shall order the forfeiture and destruction of all such infringing goods, materials and implements except in exceptional cases. All such seizure, forfeiture and destruction shall be without compensation to the defendant of any kind.
 

23. Each Party shall provide that its authorities may initiate legal action ex officio, without the need for a formal complaint by a private party or right holder. ]
 

[ Enforcement
 

1. Each Party shall ensure that its internal laws contain procedures for the defense of intellectual property rights, such as to permit effective action against any act of infringement of intellectual property rights covered by this Agreement, including expeditious remedies to prevent infringements and remedies to deter further infringements. These procedures shall be applied in such a manner as to avoid the creation of barriers to legitimate trade and to provide for safeguards against their abuse.
 

2. Procedures for enforcing intellectual property rights shall seek to be fair and equitable. They shall not be unduly complicated or onerous, nor involve unjustified deadlines or unnecessary delays.
 

3. Decisions relating to the merits of a case shall be given in writing setting out the reasons on which they are based; they shall be made available at least to the parties to the proceeding without undue delay. They shall be based on evidence in respect of which parties were offered the opportunity to be heard.
 

4. The parties in a case shall be able to seek a review by judicial authority of final administrative decisions and, subject to provisions on jurisdictional competence contained in the legislation of each Party in relation to the importance of a case, of at least the legal aspects of initial judicial decisions on the merits of the case. However, it shall not be compulsory to grant opportunity for review of final sentences handed down in criminal cases.
 

5. The present Agreement shall not be construed as imposing any obligation to install a judicial system for enforcing intellectual property rights other than what exists for the general application of the law, nor does it affect the capacity of the Parties to generally enforce their laws. No provision contained in the present Agreement shall be construed as creating an obligation as to the distribution of resources between those destined for enforcing intellectual property rights and those destined for enforcing the law generally. ]
 
 
 

IV. TECHNICAL COOPERATION
 

[Article XX. Technical Cooperation
 

1. The Parties shall afford under terms and conditions mutually agreed between donor and host countries, technical and financial cooperation to the Parties to the Agreement that so request. 
 

2. The cooperation provided for in this section may include, inter alia, the establishment or expansion of national offices and entities competent in these areas; the training of clerical and/or administrative staff in the offices of a contracting party; exchange of technical information and/or bibliography, the harmonization of criteria and procedures among the different countries, etc. 
 

3. Likewise, through cooperation, the Parties may offer to companies and institutions in their territories incentives designed to foster and promote the transfer of technological know-how to other States Parties to this Agreement for the purpose of securing the establishment of a solid, competitive and viable technological base.
 

4. The Parties shall conclude cooperation agreements, to, inter alia:
 

a) support efforts designed to promote public and private investment and development in the different territories of the Contracting Parties; 
 

b) Foster the dissemination of information on the possibilities for intellectual-property-development-related investment;
 

c) Help small and medium-size enterprises to prepare research and development projects, the results of which may eventually be protected by intellectual property rights and obtain, under the best conditions possible, adequate financing for them. 
 

d) Foster promotion and dissemination, within various spheres, of the issues related to the protection of intellectual property rights in all its aspects. ]
 

[Article XX. Cooperation and Technical Assistance
 

1. The Parties shall provide each other on mutually agreed terms with technical assistance and shall promote cooperation between their competent authorities. Such cooperation shall include, but not be limited to, the training of personnel. 
 

2. The Parties shall cooperate with a view to eliminating trade in goods that infringe intellectual property rights. 
 

[Article XX. Cooperation to eliminate the trade of goods that infringe upon intellectual property rights
 

The Parties shall cooperate in order to eliminate the trade of goods that infringe upon intellectual property rights. To this end, the Parties shall establish and make known information centers that are dedicated to the exchange of information on the trade of such goods. ]
 

Chapter IV
 

[ Technical cooperation
 

1. Parties shall be obliged to adopt all possible measures to promote and strengthen mutual technical cooperation and assistance.
 

2. In order to implement mechanisms for undertaking technical cooperation, account shall be taken of the differences in development levels between the Parties.

Technical cooperation programs may be aimed, among other things, at modernization of competent national intellectual property offices and the training of competent national officials. ]

1.

1 Proposed preamble language without prejudice to where it appears in the Agreement.

2.

2 [(In the cases of subparagraphs (k), (l), (m), (n) (o), "place holder" was included since those treaties are currently under negotiation. This list will be revised and placeholders will be separated out.)]

3.

3 Adopted by the Assemblies of the Member States of WIPO, September, 1999.

4.

4 Adopted by the WIPO Standing Committee on the Law of Trademarks, Industrial Designs and Geographical Indications on _________.

5.

5 For purposes of proposed Articles XX. National Treatment and Most-Favored Nation Treatment, "protection" shall include matters affecting the availability, acquisition, scope, maintenance and enforcement of intellectual property rights as well as uses of intellectual property rights specifically covered by this Agreement.

6.

6 [Placeholder]

7.

7 It is understood that the definition of phonogram provided herein does not suggest that rights in the phonogram are in any way affected through their incorporation into a cinematographic or other audiovisual work.

8.

8 For the application of Article 10(12), it is understood that fixation means the finalization of the master tape.

9.

9 "Copyright holder", in this section, has the same meaning as "Holder" in the IPIC Treaty.

10.

10 The words "other uses" refer to uses different to those authorized by the preceding article.

11. 11 It is understood that there shall be no obligation to apply such procedures to imports of goods put on the market in another

country by or with the consent of the right holder, or to goods in transit.

12. 12 For the purpose of these Articles concerning the enforcement of intellectual property rights, the term "right holder" shall include exclusive licensees as well as federations and associations having the legal standing to assert such rights; the term "exclusive licensee" shall include the exclusive licensee of any one or more of the exclusive rights comprised in a given intellectual property. .

13. 13For purposes of this Agreement, an exclusive licensee shall include the exclusive licensee of any one or more of the exclusive rights comprised in a given intellectual property. .

14. 14For the purposes of this Agreement:

(a) "counterfeit trademark goods" shall mean any goods, including packaging, bearing without authorization a trademark which is identical to the trademark validly registered in respect of such goods, or which cannot be distinguished in its essential aspects from such a trademark, and which thereby infringes the rights of the owner of the trademark in question under the law of the country of importation; 
 

(b) "pirated copyright goods" shall mean any goods which are copies made without the consent of the right holder or person duly authorized by the right holder in the country of production and which are made directly or indirectly from an atrticle where the making of that copy would have constituted an infringement of a copyright or a related right under the law of the country of importation.